Sunday, August 18, 2019
Frankenstein Being More Human than Monster Society is inevitable. It will always be there as a pleasure and a burden. Society puts labels on everything such as good or bad, rich or poor, normal or aberrant. Although some of these stamps are accurate, most are misconceptions. In Mary Shelley's, Frankenstein, this act of erring by society is extremely evident. Two of the most inaccurate assumptions of society revolve around the central characters, Dr. Frankenstein and the monster. Society's labels for these two extremely different characters are on the exact opposite side of the scale of what they truly are. Dr. Frankenstein is more of a monster while the monster is more humane. Dr. Frankenstein, the so labeled decent, no-fault man, is actually irresponsible, stubborn, and extreme in his actions throughout the novel. From the very first encounter with Victor Frankenstein we get a hint if his insaneness when he asks R. Walton, "Do you share my madness?". That is the first thing that he says when he recovers from his illness. Right from the start we know that something is awry with Victor. Dr. Frankenstein's irresponsibility shows through many times in his feelings toward his creation. While he was in the process of shaping his creation, Frankenstein gets so caught up in his work and his yearning to be remembered for all time that he does not consider what will happen after life is breathed into his creation. He is so consumed by his work he does not sleep for days on end, go outside, eat meals, or write to his family. Frankenstein even admits that he could not control his obsession with his work, "For this I had deprived myself of rest and health". What san e person puts his work before his own health? After his cre... ... human he has known or loved has rejected the creature he decides to isolate himself. But as he retreats to his desolation he saves a girl from drowning in river. This concern for human life in addition to his love toward the family is evidence to his humanity. Dr. Frankenstein is a man that cares only of himself and accepts no responsibility for his actions and his creation on the other hand is compassionate and helpful to the humans who despise him. Society has the most influence in a person's point of view on any given point. Mostly society causes misconceptions about people based on appearance and the unknown. This is especially evident in the novel Frankenstein, where labels are placed on the main characters by society are skewed. Dr. Frankenstein turns out to be more of a monster than his creation while his creation is more humane than Dr. Frankenstein is.
The Living Dead of Afghanistan Travesties are committed against women every day, in every country, in every city, town and home. In Afghanistan women are not only discriminated against, they are publicly reduced to animals. Women are deprived of basic human rights: they are not allowed to travel outside their homes without being completely covered by the traditional shroud-like burqa; they are not allowed to speak or walk loudly in public; they are not allowed to laugh or speak with other women; they are not allowed to attend school nor work; they are expected to be invisible; they are the ghosts of what were once educated, notable, and successful women. With their ruthless and extreme laws, the Taliban have effectively removed the physical presence of women in Afghanistan. The Taliban have stolen the very souls of these women and have turned them into the Ã¢â¬Å"living deadÃ¢â¬ of Afghanistan. The TalibanÃ¢â¬â¢s harsh restrictions and extreme religious laws have tainted the freedoms and basic human rights of the once valued and prominent women of Afghanistan. In 1996, the Taliban took control of Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan. A report by the U.S. Department of State describes that this takeover was done in a very brutal and violent manner and the Taliban left the proof of their victory hanging in the streets of the city for over a week (par. 2). In Jan GoodwinÃ¢â¬â¢s article, Buried Alive, it is written that the men who are in charge of enforcing the laws of the Taliban are called the Department of the Propagation of Virtue and the Suppression of Vice; these men also punish citizens who disobey the laws. The majority of this group is made up of fifteen year old boys carrying machine guns, but also consists of men arme... ...stated in an interview with reporter Jan Goodwin that: Ã¢â¬Å"Our current restrictions are necessary in order to bring the Afghan people under control. We need these restrictions until people learn to obey the governmentÃ¢â¬ (par. 48). WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives have changed drastically since the Taliban took control of Afghanistan. They have been deprived of basic human rights and been reduced to faceless figures that roam the streets of Afghanistan like ghosts. Most of the world could never imagine the shock of not being able to go to work or wear your regular clothes, to be deprived of such things would be utterly terrible. The Taliban have tried to smother the flames of these women but they refuse to die they refuse to stop shining. These women are strong and will eventually overcome the oppressive rule and rise up from the ashes from which they have been forced to lay.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
DESCRIPTION GE believes its ability to develop management talent is a core competency that represents a source of sustainable competitive advantage. This case traces the development of GEÃ¢â¬â¢s rich system of human resource policies and practices under five CEOs in the post-war era, showing how the development of talent is embedded into the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ongoing management responsibilities. It describes the development of a 25-year-old MBA named Jeff Immelt, who 18 years later is named as CEO of GE, arguably the biggest and most complex corporate leadership job in the world and how he frames his priorities for GE and implements them, pulling hard on the sophisticated human resource levers his predecessors left him. Immelt questions whether he should adjust or even overhaul three elements of GEÃ¢â¬â¢s finely tuned talent machine. LEARNING OBJECTIVE To examine the importance of managing human capital as carefully as financial capital as a scarce strategic resource. SUBJECTS COVERED Business policy; Competitive advantage; Core competencies; Corporate strategy; Diversified companies; Human resource management; Implementing strategy; Leadership; Management development; Organizational behavior SETTING Company Employee Count: 300,000 Ã¯â · Company Revenue: $132 billion revenues Ã¯â · Event Year Begin: 1960 Ã¯â · Event Year End: 2003 BUILDING THE TALENT MACHINE: HISTORY OF GEÃ¢â¬â¢S HR PRACTICES Strengthening the Foundations: CordinerÃ¢â¬â¢s Contributions Ralph Cordiner was president of GE from 1950-1958 and CEO from 1958-1963. Under his leadership, the following initiatives were implemented: 1. Decentralized GEÃ¢â¬â¢s management structure, transferring authority down to nearly 100 department-level businesses. 2. Spent $40 million annually on management education, almost 10% of its earnings. 3. Initiated a new management evaluation process known as Ã¢â¬Å"Session C,Ã¢â¬ which resulted in career development plans and the rating of subordinates on a six-point scale from Ã¢â¬Å"high potentialÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"unsatisfactory.Ã¢â¬ 4. Introduced a system of objective performance evaluation tied to 28 position levels (PLs) that showed entry, median and maximum level salaries for each level. Systematizing HR Processes: Borsch and Jones Fred Borsch was CEO from 1963-1972. During his tenure he: 1. Implemented a new round of corporate diversification. 2. Overcame department managersÃ¢â¬â¢ tendency to keep talented managers to themselves, which was accomplished by having the top 2% of GEÃ¢â¬â¢s employees (PLs 13-27) report directly to him. 3. Had GE business leaders identify potential managerial talent and track all Ã¢â¬Å"high potentialsÃ¢â¬ to make sure they were exposed to a wide range of GE businesses. Reg Jones was CEO from 1972-1981. He introduced a more formal and structured approach to strategic planning, creating 43 strategic business units and adding another organizational layerÃ¢â¬âthe sectorÃ¢â¬âto put groups together based upon common characteristics. Supercharging the System: WelchÃ¢â¬â¢s Initiatives Jack Welch became CEO in 1981. During his time as CEO, he: 1. Concentrated on improving performance in order for GE to become #1 or #2 in their current businesses. 2. Implemented the Ã¢â¬Å"fix it, sell it, or close itÃ¢â¬ strategy for businesses that were not #1 or #2. 3. Eliminated over 100,000 jobs. 4. Collapsed the 29 positions levels (PLs) into seven broad bands. 5. Granted stock options for performance. 6. Invested heavily in management development. 7. Reconsidered competing for management recruits from the pool of most hunted college and business school graduates. Went after disciplined, self-motivated candidates from Midwestern engineering programs, night schools and former military officers. 8. Insisted managers be evaluated on how they live up to GEÃ¢â¬â¢s values, as well as objective performance measures. 9. Added a disciplined performance analysis to Session C by asking managers to rank subordinates on a Ã¢â¬Å"vitality curveÃ¢â¬ : the top 20%, highly valued 70% and least effective 10%. 10. Tightly integrated HR systems with other business elements to constantly look for Ã¢â¬Å"high potentials.Ã¢â¬ THE MAKING OF A CEO: THE RISE AND RISE OF JEFF IMMELT Jeff Immelt joined GE in 1982. He was a 25-year old Harvard MBA who impressed the GE Harvard MBA recruiting executive so much that Immelt didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even need to go through the normal process of going through the corporate referral center. The recruiting executive recommended Immelt to senior management and suggested that Jack Welch get involved to make sure Immelt didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take a job somewhere else. Within 30 days of his hiring, Immelt was part of a team presenting to Welch. The Plastics Experience: Building Skills Immelt started out as a regional sales manager for GE Plastics with 15 people reporting directly to him. Over the next seven years, Immelt held positions as product manager, sales manager and global marketing manager. He was one of 150 other young Ã¢â¬Å"high potentialsÃ¢â¬ being tracked for positions at the highest levels of the company. In 1987, Immelt was selected to attend the Executive Development Course at Crotonville. This course was important for ImmeltÃ¢â¬â¢s possible selection as a company officer and provided him excellent networking opportunities with other high potential managers. The Appliances Challenge: The Turnaround Test In 1989, Immelt was moved to the Appliances service business. He was placed in the Appliances business to figure out what to do with over one million defective refrigerators that had been sold by GE. Immelt knew this was an excellent opportunity and that he would either Ã¢â¬Å"sink or swim.Ã¢â¬ Over one million refrigerator compressors were replaced with new units that came from competitors. The recall operation went well and Immelt was asked to run the entire marketing and product marketing operations, reporting directly to the CEO of Appliances. Immelt got frank feedback during his Session C evaluations and was counseled that he needed to listen better, to empower his subordinates more and to channel his energy into bringing his people along with him when he wanted action. In 1992, Jack Welch moved Immelt back to Plastics. Plastics Redux: Trial by Fire After a year back at Plastics, Immelt was named head of Plastics Americas, reporting directly to the CEO of Plastics. Immelt faced challenges when his operation missed its numbers by $30 million, due to cost overruns, and he had tried to renegotiate prices with its big customer, General Motors. GM was ready to stop doing business with GE when Welch and GMÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO decided to work together in order to solve the problem. Welch checked with Immelt regularly to see how Immelt was handling the situation. Welch was not happy with Immelt, but he watched Immelt closely and allowed the decisions made regarding the relationship with GM to be ImmeltÃ¢â¬â¢s. Immelt understood that he would not be punished for making a mistake. He knew, however, that Ã¢â¬Å"you can failÃ¢â¬ but Ã¢â¬Å"we donÃ¢â¬â¢t allow you to make the same mistake twice.Ã¢â¬ Medical Systems: Putting It All Together In 1997, Immelt was appointed to run GE Medical Systems. Prior to ImmeltÃ¢â¬â¢s arrival, GE Medical had been focusing on cost-cutting. Instead, Immelt emphasized growth and started to expand into other businesses and make GE Medical a more global company. He started acquiring companies, investing in new technologies and restructuring global operations. ImmeltÃ¢â¬â¢s style was to engage and energize those around him. Immelt began to mentor and coach other high potential managers, and as a result of his leadership and the success of his team, in four years, GE MedicalÃ¢â¬â¢s sales doubled and its profit more than doubled. Because of his excellent work leading GE Medical, by 2001, Jeff Immelt had become one of the front-runners to succeed Jack Welch as CEO of GE. The Succession Process WelchÃ¢â¬â¢s list of CEO succession candidates included then-current business heads, some senior corporate officers and about a dozen young Ã¢â¬Å"hot shots,Ã¢â¬ like Immelt. From 1994, members of GEÃ¢â¬â¢s board visited various GE businesses to get a direct impression of potential CEO candidates. By 2000, it was widely speculated that the three top contenders were Jeff Immelt, Jim McNerney and Bob Nardelli. In October 2000, the board discussed the three finalists and in November, Immelt was unanimously voted CEO designate. NEW HANDS ON THE CONTROLS: JEFF IMMELT, CEO Jeff ImmeltÃ¢â¬â¢s first day as CEO was September 10, 2001. He called it the Ã¢â¬Å"one good dayÃ¢â¬ of his first year on the job. The next day was 9/11 and from then on, GEÃ¢â¬â¢s businesses, like those of other companies, faced hard times and a drop in its stock price. ImmeltÃ¢â¬â¢s Priority: Leveraging Human Capital for Growth Immelt was committed to GEÃ¢â¬â¢s continued growth and he spent an estimated 40% of his time on human resource issues. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"Every initiative IÃ¢â¬â¢m thinking about gets translated immediately into recruiting, Crotonville and Session C.Ã¢â¬ ImmeltÃ¢â¬â¢s five key human resource initiatives were: 1. Target technology skills during Session C reviews. Review the businessÃ¢â¬â¢s engineering pipeline, the organization of its engineering function and evaluate the potential of its engineering talent. (Immelt was concerned that technology-oriented managers were under-represented in GEÃ¢â¬â¢s executive ranks.) 2. Open new channels of communication between businesses and geographical areas. Share ideas. 3. Emphasize customer relationships and marketing. 4. Develop GEÃ¢â¬â¢s globalization strategy. (Immelt appointed Ferdinando Beccalli as the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s first CEO of GE Europe; named a new president and CEO of China; and began offering courses at Crotonville to Chinese management and Chinese customers.) 5. Invest in businesses heavier in human capital than in physical capital. (Immelt identified six growth platformsÃ¢â¬âhealthcare information technology, water technology and services, oil and gas technology, security and sensors, Hispanic broadcasting, and consumer finance.) THE TALENT MACHINE IN 2003: SERVICE, TUNE UP, OR OVERHAUL? In 2003, Immelt was reflecting on his first full year as CEO. Times had not been good; GEÃ¢â¬â¢s stock was down and employees were uneasy about the economic downturn. Management and employee turnover was low, but Immelt wanted to make sure that when the economy picked up, employees would be motivated and engaged. He wondered if it was time to adjust or overhaul GEÃ¢â¬â¢s talent machine. The Vitality Curve While the rankings-based vitality curve had been controversial to many outsiders, long-term GE employees viewed it as part of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s meritocracy-based culture. Immelt felt that other companies had experienced difficulty with the process because it requires feedback, coaching, training and clear performance goals. All the elements of the evaluation system must work together. However, in early 2003, Immelt noticed that BankAmerica had successfully recruited over 90 GE employees. These employees had been targeted, not from the top 20%, but from the highly valued 70%. Immelt felt this group was the backbone of GE and were not to be considered just average. Should the system be modified to differentiate within this group? Should recognition and rewards be less sharply focused on the top 20%? Or, should the entire concept of performance ranking at GE be questioned? Recruitment GE was driving toward more service-intense global businesses. Immelt wondered about the talent pool he would need to run these businesses. One proposal was to target MBAs with marketing management career interests. Immelt also wondered if GE was not over-reliant on its US-based recruitment programs. Since 40% of GEÃ¢â¬â¢s revenues were generated offshore, should there be more non-Americans in executive positions? Executive Bands One problem with the collapse of the 29 PLs into seven broad executive bands was that some employees, especially in international locations, felt that their promotion opportunities were limited and the frequency of clearly defined job promotions decreased. In more hierarchical business cultures, such as India, perceived status and level were highly valued. While there might not be a real difference between a PL15 and PL16, for many it represented an important psychological reward.
ASSIGNMENTS Weekly Point Values ASSIGNMENTS |Due |Points | |Individual (70%) | |Ã | |Fundamentals of Macroeconomics Paper |Week 2 |15 | |Federal Reserve Presentation |Week 4 |15 | |International Trade and Finance Speech |Week 5 |10 | |Final Examination |Week 5 |15 | |Participation (3 points/class) |All |15 | |Student End of Course Surveys (SEOCS) |Week 4-5 |Ã¢â¬â | |Learning Team (30%) | |Ã | |Learning Team Charter |Week 2 |Ã¢â¬â | |Weekly Reflection |Week 2 |3 | |Aggregate Demand and Supply Models |Week 3 |14 | |Weekly Reflection |Week 3 |3 | |Weekly Reflection |Week 4 |3 | |Fiscal Policy Paper |Week 5 |7 | |Learning Team Evaluation |Week 5 |Ã¢â¬â | |Total | |100 | |Week One: Fundamentals of Macroeconomics | | |Details |Due |Points | |Objectives |Explain the economic interaction of resources among households, government, and business. | | | | |Describe gross domestic product, inflation rate, unemployment rate, and interest rate. | | | |Identify sources of histori cal economic data and economic forecasts. | | | |Reading |Read Ch. 1 of Macroeconomics. | | | |Reading |Read Ch. 2 of Macroeconomics. | | | |Reading |Read Ch. 6 of Macroeconomics. | | | |Reading |Read Ch. 7 of Macroeconomics. | | | |Reading |Read Ch. 8 of Macroeconomics. | | | |Reading |Read this weekÃ¢â¬â¢s Electronic Reserve Readings. | | |Participation |Participate in class discussion. |11/26/12 |3 | |Discussion Questions |Respond to weekly discussion questions. | | | |Week Two: Aggregate Demand and Supply Models | | |Details |Due |Points | |Objectives | | | | |Analyze the impact of various factors on aggregate demand and supply. | | | | |Evaluate the effectiveness of changes in fiscal policies using Keynesian and Classical | | | | |models. | | | |Reading |Read Ch. 10 of Macroeconomics. | | | |Reading |Read Ch. 12 of Macroeconomics. | | | |Participation |Participate in class discussion. |12/03/12 |3 | |Discussion Questions |Respond to weekly discussion questions. | | |Indivi dual |Resource: Figure 3-1 in Ch. 3 of Macroeconomics. |12/03/12 |15 | |Fundamentals of | | | | |Macroeconomics Paper |Part 1 | | | | | | | | | |Describe the following terms in your words. | | | | | | | | |Gross domestic product (GDP) | | | | |Real GDP | | | | |Nominal GDP | | | | |Unemployment rate | | | | |Inflation rate | | | |Interest rate | | | | | | | | | |Part 2 | | | | | | | | | |Consider the following examples of economic activities: | | | | | | | | | |Purchasing of groceries | | | | |Massive layoff of employees | | | | |Decrease in taxes | | | | | | | | | |Describe how each of these activities affects government, households, and businesses. | | | | |Describe the flow of resources from one entity to another for each activity. | | | | | | | | | |Write a 750- to 1,250-word paper summarizing the results. | | |Learning Team |Develop a list of resources you might use to gather historical economic data as well as |12/03/12 |3 | |Weekly Reflection |economic forecast dat a. | | | | | | | | | |Explain how and why each source is valuable and useful. | | | | | | | | | |Identify any quantitative or qualitative forecasting factors contained in the sources. | | | | | | | | |Discuss this weekÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives with your team. Your discussion should include the topics you| | | | |feel comfortable with, any topics you struggled with, and how the weekly topics relate to | | | | |application in your field. | | | | | | | | | |Write a 350- to 700-word paper that details your team's findings. | | | Week Three: Monetary Policy | | |Details |Due |Points | |Objectives | | | | | |Assess the factors contributing to the establishment of general and specific rates of | | | | |interest. | | | | |Explain the role of the Federal Reserve System in designing and implementing U. S. onetary | | | | |policies. | | | | |Analyze how the money multiplier effect facilitates the creation of money. | | | |Reading |Read Ch. 11 of Macroeconomics. | | | |Reading |Read Ch. 13 of Ma croeconomics. | | | |Reading |Read Ch. 14 of Macroeconomics. | | | |Participation |Participate in class discussion. |12/10/12 |3 | |Discussion Questions |Respond to weekly discussion questions. | | |Learning Team |For this assignment, you will choose from the following options: |12/10/12 |14 | |Aggregate Demand and | | | | |Supply Models |Option 1: Economic Advisement Paper | | | | |Option 2: Economic Critique | | | | | | | | | |Read the instructions in the University of Phoenix Material: Aggregate Demand and Supply | | | | |Models located on the student website and select one option to complete the assignment. | | | |Learning Team |Discuss this weekÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives with your team.Your discussion should include the topics you |12/10/12 |3 | |Weekly Reflection |feel comfortable with, any topics you struggled with, and how the weekly topics relate to | | | | |application in your field. | | | | | | | | | |Write a 350- to 700- word paper detailing the findings of your discussion. | | | |Week Four: Fiscal Policy Ã¢â¬â Politics, Deficits, and Debt | | Details |Due |Points | |Objectives | | | | | |Analyze the influence of deficit, surplus, and debt on the health of the U. S. macroeconomy. | | | |Reading |Read Ch. 17 of Macroeconomics. | | | |Reading |Read Ch. 18 of Macroeconomics. | | | |Participation |Participate in class discussion. |12/17/12 |3 | |Discussion Questions |Respond to weekly discussion questions. | | |Individual |Your boss has chosen you to give a presentation to a number of foreign officials regarding |12/17/12 |15 | |Federal Reserve |the United States Federal Reserve System. These officials are very interested in doing | | | |Presentation |business in the United States, but they would like to learn more about the Fed, how it | | | | |operates and how its actions may affect their business. | | | | | | | | | |Develop a 5- to 10-slide MicrosoftÃ ® PowerPointÃ ® presentation. | | | | | | | | |Address the following questions and include a not es page which contains the write-up portion | | | | |to each question: | | | | | | | | | |What are the factors that would influence the Federal Reserve in adjusting the discount rate? | | | |How does the discount rate affect the decisions of banks in setting their specific interest | | | | |rates? | | | | |How does monetary policy control the money supply and inflation? | | | | |How does a stimulus program (through the money multiplier) affect the money supply? | | | | |What current indictors are evident that there is too much or too little money within the | | | | |economy and how is monetary policy aiming to adjust this? | | | | |How do the above factors impact individual businesses? | | |Learning Team |Discuss this weekÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives with your team. Your discussion should include the topics you |12/17/12 |3 | |Weekly Reflection |feel comfortable with, any topics you struggled with, and how the weekly topics relate to | | | | |application in your field. | | | | | | | | | |Pr epare a 350- to 700- word paper detailing the findings of your discussion. | | | Week Five: International Trade and Finance | | |Details |Due |Points | |Objectives | | | | | |Analyze the effects of international trade on the U. S. macroeconomy. | | | | |Explain how foreign exchange rates are determined. | | | | |Analyze the impact of trade restrictions, tariffs, and quotas on the U. S. macroeconomy. | | | |Reading |Read Ch. 19 of Macroeconomics. | | | |Reading |Read Ch. 20 of Macroeconomics. | | |Reading |Read Ch. 21 of Macroeconomics. | | | |Participation |Participate in class discussion. |01/07/13 |3 | |Discussion Questions |Respond to weekly discussion questions. | | | |Individual |Resources: Macroeconomics |01/07/13 |15 | |Final Examination | | | | | |Click the link to the Final Examination on your student website. | | | | | | | | |Complete the Final Examination. You are allowed one attempt to complete the exam, which is | | | | |timed and must be completed in 3 hours. Results are auto graded and sent to your instructor. | | | | | | | | | |Note. Final Examination questions are adapted from Macroeconomics. | | | |Individual |Assume that you have been appointed as the Speaker of the House.You must deliver a speech |01/07/13 |10 | |International Trade and |about the current state of the U. S. macroeconomy to a number of amateur reporters who are | | | |Finance Speech |unfamiliar with economics. | | | | | | | | | |Prepare a 700- to 1,050-word speech in simple terms and concepts that focus on international | | | | |trade and foreign exchange rates. | | | | | | | | |Integrate a summary of your answers to the following questions and cite external research to| | | | |further justify your facts: | | | | | | | | | |What happens when there is a surplus of imports brought into the U. S.? Cite a specific | | | | |example of a product with an import surplus, and the impact that has on the U. S. businesses | | | | |and consumers involved. | | | | | | | | |What are the effects of international trade to GDP, domestic markets and university students? | | | | | | | | | |How do government choices in regards to tariffs and quotas affect international relations and| | | | |trade? | | | | | | | | |What are foreign exchange rates? How are they determined? | | | | | | | | | |Why doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t the U. S. simply restrict all goods coming in from China? Why canÃ¢â¬â¢t the U. S. just | | | | |minimize the amount of imports coming in from all other countries? | | | |Learning Team |Discuss within your Learning Team how and why the U. S. s deficit, surplus and debt have an |01/07/13 |7 | |Fiscal Policy Paper |effect on the following: | | | | | | | | | |Tax payers | | | | |Future Social Security and Medicare users | | | | |Unemployed individuals | | | | |University of Phoenix student | | | | |The United StateÃ¢â¬â¢s financial reputation on an international level | | | | |A domestic automotive manufacturing (exporter) | | | | |An Italian clothing company (impo rter) | | | | |GDP | | | | | | | | | |Write a 500- to 700-word paper summarizing the results. | | | Optional Discussion Questions Week One Discussion Questions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Why is economics considered a social science? What role does economics play in your personal and professional lives? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is the difference between real and nominal GDP? Does GDP accurately reflect the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare? Why or why not? How can a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP be manipulated? In your opinion, is the U. S. GDP being manipulated? Explain your answer. Ã¢â¬ ¢ What are the different types of unemployment? How do they affect the economy in terms of growth, labor force, and price of labor? Cite specific examples to support your response. Identify economic factors that affect the real GDP, the unemployment rate, the inflation rate, and a key interest rate. How do you predict the economy will perform in the next two years given the current state of two of the economic factors you identified? How might yo ur organization be affected by these changes? Week Two Discussion Questions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Explain the viewpoints of classical and Keynesian economists. How did the economy that existed at the time of these theories influence them? Which theory is more appropriate for the economy today? Why? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Why do Keynesian economists believe market forces do not automatically adjust for unemployment and inflation?What is their solution for stabilizing economic fluctuations? Why do they believe changes in government spending affect the economy differently than changes in income taxes? Ã¢â¬ ¢ In your opinion, which two determinates currently have the greatest impact on aggregate demand and supply? Justify your response with an example. Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is the difference between contractionary and expansionary fiscal policies? Which is more appropriate today? Explain your answer. How might contractionary and expansionary fiscal policies affect your organization? Week Three Discussion Questions Ã¢â¬ ¢ What are the uses of money? How do commercial banks and Federal banks create money?Is monetary policy conducted independently in the United States? Explain your answer. Is it important for monetary policy to remain independent from all parties? Why or why not? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is the difference between contractionary and expansionary monetary policy? What is the intention of each policy under a depression, recession, or robust economy? Which type of monetary policy is more appropriate today and why? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What happens to the money supply, interest rates, and the economy if the Federal Reserve is a net seller of government bonds? What happens to the money supply, interest rates, and the economy if the Federal Reserve is a net buyer of government bonds.Why would the government implement a stimulus program into the economy? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rank the factors that contribute to the discount interest rate from most important to least important. Justify your rankings. Week Four Discussion Questions Ã ¢â¬ ¢ How does a government budget deficit affect the economy? Identify two periods in recent history in which the United States has run budget deficits. What were the reasons for the deficits during those time periods? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How does a government budget surplus affect the U. S. economy? Identify two periods in recent history in which the United States has run budget surpluses. What were the reasons for the surpluses during those time periods? What are the potential consequences of a country having a large overall debt? If you were in the position to implement a solution for the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s long-term debt, what would it be and why? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What are the positive and negative aspects of budget deficits and surpluses? What policy is best for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s economy? Explain your answer. Week Five Discussion Questions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Explain how foreign exchange rates are determined. How do changes in interest rates, inflation, productivity, and income affect exchange rates? What are the advantages and disadvantages of a weak versus a strong dollar for imports, exports, international and domestic markets? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Who benefits from a tariff or quota? Who loses?Why would domestic markets benefit from protectionist trade policies? How do protectionist trade policies affect a governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth and fiscal policy? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is the effect of a trade surplus? What is the effect of a trade deficit? How do trade deficits and surpluses affect the industry in which you work? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Why are trade agreements important for the various countries involved? How is international trade related to the U. S. standard of living as opposed to the standard of living of a small industrial nation or a developing nation? How does international trade affect a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s standard of living? What impact does it have on the way Americans live life, spend, consume, and so on.?
Friday, August 16, 2019
Essentialism in society is Ã¢â¬Å"the practice of regarding something (as a presumed human trait) as having innate existence or universal validity rather than as being a social, ideological, or intellectual construct,Ã¢â¬ or in simpler terms, ascribing one trait or set of traits to a specific group of people, disregarding individual variations or possible variations ( Spelman, n. d. ). Essentialism is practiced by everyone as a biological pattern-recognition mechanism. It can, however, and frequently is, used as a hostile tool to oppress and subject people grouped together by race, gender, financial circumstances, and sexual identities and orientations. Essentialism is a dangerously powerful tool employed by politicians hoping to incite the emotions of the general populace enough to overlook the rationality of their words and meanings. Essentialism is degrading to every person on a personal level; it strips individuals of individuality, attributing traits based on skin tone, hair color, religious beliefs, sexual preferences, sexual identity, gender identity, body type, clothing choicesÃ¢â¬â leaving room only for what are considered the Ã¢â¬Å"basics,Ã¢â¬ regardless of their truth or falseness. It defines Ã¢â¬Å"gender roles,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"race roles,Ã¢â¬ any role based on these traits (Narrative Therapy, n. d. ). The increasingly accessible media of popular music acts only as fuel for reducing whole bodies of people to one set of traits. Statistics regarding record sales are null and void when the actual listening audience of any popular music is concerned; it is played in shopping malls, on public transportation, in private businesses, often on public streets: any genre of popular music has an ample audience at any given moment in time. For that reason alone its many mixed messages are spread wide and unevenly (Book Rags, 2009). Pop music has songs with confident lyrics, cocky lyrics, lyrics alluding to serious depression, jealousy, melancholy, drinking and drug habits (healthy and unhealthy), often revolving around and promoting Ã¢â¬Å"traditionalÃ¢â¬ (that is, mainstream) gender roles, sexual identities, and racial identities. Record sales alone indicate a substantial audience willing to invest monetarily in songs they may or may not necessarily agree with the lyrics of; however, the continued inclusion of such essentialist lyrics is a significant indication that a majority of listeners, if not in complete agreement with them, are not actively attempting to staunch the accelerating insertion of essentialism into the everyday lives of its listeners (On Distinction, 2009). Bibliography Elizabeth, Spelman. Inessential Woman. Google. 02 July 2009 . Book Rags. Google. 2 July 2009 . Narrative Therapy. Google. 2 July 2009 . On Distinction. 07 July 2006. Google. 2 July 2009
The procedure of thought and acquisition has proved to be absorbing and interesting for many philosophers, faculty members and scientists for centuries. Due to psychological and neurological research, grounds has been gathered about usage of intelligence and the encephalon Ã¢â¬Ës operation. Learning, both formal and informal, occurs every twenty-four hours and there are many definitions depicting its procedure. These definitions vary harmonizing to theoretician Ã¢â¬Ës ain positions and attacks towards larning ( Pritchard, 2009 ) . When acquisition, persons frequently choose to utilize or accommodate a preferable acquisition manner. There are many defined acquisition manners and one manner of happening out which manner is the 1 that an person prefers, is by replying and measuring a learning manner questionnaire. Depending on consequences, scholars are being described in assorted footings such as ocular, reflector, pragmatist and many more. Not all theories provide questionnaires or trials to place learning penchants. These theories, for illustration Gardner Ã¢â¬Ës Multiple Intelligences, are, however, utile tools assisting recognise countries of strengths and failings. In this assignment I discuss assorted larning theories and how they are relevant to professional and personal pattern. I present a scope of larning styles/theories and sketch their chief points, for illustration Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Visual, Audio, Kineasthetic acquisition manner, Gardner Ã¢â¬Ës Multiple Intelligences and Goleman Ã¢â¬Ës Emotional Intelligence. I contrast assorted larning manners and look how they are implemented into the national course of study. I assess how realistic it is to use the acquisition manners in pattern and I besides reflect on my ain pattern and experiences. Learning manners and theories A acquisition theory, possibly more associated with grownup acquisition and staff employment, that identifies and classifies assorted personal types, is Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ( MBTI ) . The theory originates from thoughts of Carl Jung and it identifies four penchant graduated tables, they are: Extraversion ( E ) / Introversion ( I ) , Sensation ( S ) /iNtuition ( N ) , Thinking ( T ) /Feeling ( F ) and Judgement ( J ) /Perception ( P ) . By uniting the four letters of each penchant the personality type is established. In entire, there are 16 whole types that describe single penchants ( Myers, I. Briggs, 1995 ) . Some critics of MBTI are speedy to indicate out that the descriptions of different personal types are excessively obscure, general and some convergence ( Bayne, 1997 ) . Additionally, assorted factors that can act upon persons when replying inquiries need to be considered, such as: Have they got old experiences of specific state of affairss when depicting their behavior and actions? How many experiences can they compare? How do they experience that peculiar twenty-four hours? Is at that place a possibility of a wages when falling into a certain class? ( For illustration publicity ) . Who is traveling to be reexamining questionnaires, employer or an outside bureau? Are consequences traveling to act upon any alterations in current occupation place? Are persons traveling to be stereotyped? Are they traveling to be encouraged to work with their strengths and non given chance to better their failings? Despite the defects, the MBTI enables people to derive a better apprehension of themselves and how other people think and interact with each other. It is besides of import to retrieve that each peculiar personal type is as of import and utile as the remainder of them, and that there is no right, incorrect or better type. Another theory, strongly promoted by the Department for Education and Skills ( 2004 ) , is the Visual, Audio, Kinaesthetic ( VAK ) larning manner. One manner of happening out which manner is the 1 that an single prefers is by replying and measuring a learning manner questionnaire. These penchants can be ocular, audile, kinesthetic, or sometimes a blend of two or three manners. The VAK acquisition manner is supported by many pedagogues who are provided with valuable apprehension of what larning manner is preferred by an person, which larning environment enables the pupils to spread out their acquisition and, which learning schemes provide a balance of chances for the pupils. However, there are besides many professionals who argue that formal VAK trials are misdirecting for instructors. Alternatively of pulling attending to how kids learn and how assorted facets can act upon their acquisition, the theory has led to pupils being labelled as peculiar types of scholars. Many theoreticians, including Dunn and Dunn and Gregorc, use the VAK attack. Although, Gregorc Ã¢â¬Ës theoretical account was Ã¢â¬Ëtheoretically and psychometrically flawed Ã¢â¬Ë and both of their manners should non be used at schools ( Coffield et al, 2004, pp. 31, 33 ) harmonizing to the Department for Education and Skills ( 2004 ) , both theories should be considered by schools. The writers of the Ã¢â¬ËVAK or VAK-uous? Ã¢â¬Ë demonstrate, based on their study, that: Rubing beneath the surface of it all, we find a instead challenging universe of accelerated and brain-based acquisition, a universe of pseudoscience, psychobabble and neurononsense. ( Bowker et al, 2008, p. 311 ) Some of the theories take into history other intelligences apart from lingual and mathematical accomplishments. Howard Gardner ( 1993 ) recognises assorted intelligences, originally there were seven: lingual, logical/mathematical, musical, spatial/visual, kineasthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal. He is right to believe that intelligence is non linked with IQ but some of his Ã¢â¬Ëintelligences Ã¢â¬Ë can be viewed as endowment. His theory encourages pedagogues to look beyond reading, composing and mathematics, and to reflect on and accommodate their patterns. Teachers are persuaded to concentrate on pupil Ã¢â¬Ës countries of strengths, to detect their accomplishments, and utilize them to actuate and raise self-pride of pupils who are otherwise classed as Ã¢â¬Ëunderachievers Ã¢â¬Ë . The Department for Education and Skills ( 2004 ) recommends Gardner Ã¢â¬Ës model of multiple intelligences to be applied to be after lessons and activities guaranting that they are inclusive fo r all kids, taking into history a scope of larning manners identified by instructors. However, Gardner Ã¢â¬Ës theory lacks research and grounds to back up this. His critic John White ( 2006, pp. 82-83 ) openly says that because it is Ã¢â¬Ëbacked by authorization of a celebrated Harvard professor Ã¢â¬Ë does non intend that it is accurate and even Gardner himself admits that Ã¢â¬Ëit is merely by opportunity that he ( Gardner ) decided to name his classs Ã¢â¬Ëintelligences Ã¢â¬ . Another theoretician that focuses on intelligence separate from IQ is Daniel Goleman. In his work he speaks of Emotional Intelligence ( EI ) . EI has become omnipresent and is widely used in assorted countries, which proves that many grownups, every bit good as kids, can profit from utilizing Goleman Ã¢â¬Ës rules in pattern every twenty-four hours. Goleman ( 2004 ) identifies five cardinal rules: ego and other consciousness, temper direction, self-motivation, empathy and direction of relationships. The term 'emotional intelligence Ã¢â¬Ë is known worldwide and closely associated with working environment. Goleman ( 2004 ) argues that EI is more of import than IQ. For illustration when sing using a baby's room practician, emotional and societal accomplishments are more of import than academic accomplishments as the practician needs to be able to associate to parents, kids, co-workers and other professionals involved in a kid Ã¢â¬Ës attention. Additional preparation, to guarantee t hat the practician has appropriate making, can be provided by employer or sought by an employee. One of the cardinal points of Goleman Ã¢â¬Ës response to criticisms is that he is non showing a new theory but a topic that has been studied for old ages under personality research. The theory was originally introduced by Jack Mayer and Peter Salovey, whom Goleman seldom references in his work. He uses the term emotional intelligence excessively loosely as he besides includes facets of personality and behavior. Even so, many schools in the United States of America have successfully incorporated programmes on emotional intelligence in their course of study and have been running them for a decennary ( Gilbert, 2008 ) . Both, Goleman and Gardner, suggest that non merely academic accomplishments, such as authorship and reading, but besides other intelligences are portion of the acquisition procedure. They suggest the intelligences are every bit of import, and need to be considered when organizing inclusive acquisition environment for kids and grownups. With the Department for Education and Skills ( DfES, 2004 ) and the Office for criterions in instruction ( Ofsted, 2006 ) advancing personalised Ã¢â¬Ëtailored Ã¢â¬Ë larning for all pupils and raising criterions, pedagogues are put under force per unit area to guarantee that larning demands of all pupils are met. DfES ( 2004, unit 19, p. 2 ) provinces that theory of larning manners is based on Ã¢â¬Ëtried and tested techniques and draws on academic research and the experience of rehearsing instructors Ã¢â¬Ë . However, the unit 19 was withdrawn in 2007. Assorted larning theories offer their ain account of a learning manner, their point of position and frequently besides a formal trial or questionnaire. They all promise positive consequences and an account why a scholar prefers a peculiar acquisition manner. It is so up to a instructor to happen ways how to implement the national course of study that best suits the scholar. However, harmonizing to Susan Greenfield ( 2007 ) the pattern is Ã¢â¬Ënonsense Ã¢â¬Ë from a neuroscientific point of position and she stresses that after 30 old ages of educational research, there is no independent grounds that any learning manner stock list has any direct educational benefits. Evaluation of my pattern and past experiences For me, the most important facet of this assignment was the whole construct of larning manners and theories. Initially, I did non cognize much about the topic and I found it more and more absorbing as I continued in my reading. Previously, I realised that kids Ã¢â¬Ës larning penchants can be monitored through elaborate observations and ratings, I was able to concentrate on kids Ã¢â¬Ës strengths and failings. I think that observations are every bit of import as questionnaires but I besides realise that they are more clip consuming, which was seldom an issue for me as I have merely antecedently worked with little groups of immature kids. Having analysed assorted larning manners I now wonder how utile they are to my pattern. I realise that kids Ã¢â¬Ës different attacks to larning demand to be recognised. However, I am non confident about benefits of assorted larning manners to kids Ã¢â¬Ës acquisition, particularly after reading Coffield Ã¢â¬Ës critical points of position that arose from his research. In my pattern I have ever believed that advancing empathy and positive attitudes amongst kids would understate unwanted behavior, hence, supplying a composure and exciting learning environment. As kids grow they become cognizant of their ain feelings and responses they receive when exposing a peculiar emotion. By furthering empathy, instead than sympathy, kids and grownups can derive a better apprehension of each others feelings and emotions, what triggers them, how to command and cover with them. I would non travel every bit far as stating that these facets should be classed as Ã¢â¬Ëintelligences Ã¢â¬Ë , they are, in my sentiment, more associated with personal/social accomplishments and behavior, therefore holding an impact on larning attitudes. A theoretician who recognised empathy as an of import portion in kids Ã¢â¬Ës acquisition and development was Carl Rogers. He identified that non merely kids but besides grownups need to experience valued, respected and treated with fon dness. Rogers ( 1989 ) speaks of unconditioned positive respect, intending that parents and others, who play of import portion in a kid Ã¢â¬Ës life, accept and love a child/person for what they are no affair their actions and behavior. To make emotionally warm environment where all kids are accepted but besides going more effectual in interpersonal relationships, instructors need to expose empathetic apprehension and communicate openly and candidly. Learning manner questionnaires and my acquisition attitudes By finishing one of VAK self-assessment questionnaires I identified that my preferable learning manner was a ocular 1. On contemplation, I can see elements of this manner in the manner I learn and organise undertakings as I do work best from lists and written waies. I besides write down notes and slug points when reading, fixing lessons and activities for kids or be aftering staff meetings. I frequently use different symbols or colorss to associate up topics. I have discovered that seeing something written down enables me to do connexions quicker and retrieve information better. Harmonizing to MBTI on-line study my personality type codification is likely ESTJ or possibly ESTP. After carefully reexamining the results I agree with most of the consequences. I ever plan in front, I have got really good organizational accomplishments and I use them good in my professional and personal life. Although, I prefer undertakings to be done in a certain manner, I am besides willing to accept new suggestions ( see appendix A ) . Having analysed results of other trials I undertook, such as Belbin Ã¢â¬Ës Self-perception Inventory and Honey and Mumford questionnaire, I discovered new facets of myself and I identified forms that are dominant in my personal penchants. Furthermore, it confirmed that I am efficient and dependable, and I like construction and modus operandi. However, I am introspective, I do non like role-play in forepart of looker-ons, I am loath to depute ( which was commented on in an assessments by my old employer ) and sometimes I do non react to new thoughts. Additionally, I do non like being rushed though I seem to work better under force per unit area. I besides stand by my determination or position if I am certain that I can back up it with a valid statement. The rating was helpful as it made me cognizant of my preferable learning mode but besides encouraged me to admit, see and develop other manners, as on many occasions I have expected people to portion my acquisition penchants. As a following measure, I need to utilize the cognition of my larning attitudes in my surveies and implement my Ã¢â¬Ëstudy program Ã¢â¬Ë . I have devised a new structured timetable and monthly program, which enables me to clearly see my marks. I made certain that I allowed myself a sufficient sum of clip for library research, visits and reading and I besides took into history clip that I spend set abouting online research. Equally, I made certain that I took regular interruptions and I besides allocated clip for regular exercising. It has been a twosome of old ages since I completed degree three in Children Ã¢â¬Ës Care, Learning and Development, and the return to instruction was exciting but besides a nervous measure. I was cognizant that the surveies were traveling to be more demanding. Rather than roll uping grounds and information, edifice portfolio and being assessed at work every bit required in the yesteryear, future surveies would be based on thorough grounds based research and personal and professional contemplations. Having acknowledged strengths and identified failings, I now feel that I can utilize them to my advantage. In the past I learned how to cover with unfavorable judgment, which I did non ever take good, but being cognizant of this encouraged me to work on my accomplishments. Now I use unfavorable judgment to my benefit and expression at it from a positive angle as a tool to better myself. Decision In decision, the chief rule that we are all different to each other, and that we develop and learn in a different manner is still core. The cognition of assorted larning manners provides instructors and practicians with utile information on how to heighten kids Ã¢â¬Ës acquisition. The instructors are so able to be after lessons and organise activities suiting assorted larning manners that consequences in a lesson that engages all of the pupils in the category. Pritchard ( 2009, p. 43 ) provinces that Ã¢â¬ËLearning manners are non fixed traits which an person will ever expose Ã¢â¬Ë . There are many factors that can act upon scholar, therefore do a alteration of a learning manner. As this assignment shows, every acquisition manner and its theory have its dedicated protagonists and house critics. It is up to pedagogues to happen a balance and guarantee questionnaires and trials do non overpower kids. When utilizing questionnaires to set up acquisition manners, it is of import to retrieve that consequences are non one hundred per cent accurate and some questionnaires are easy to forge. Nevertheless, they are practical tools to assist persons happen out more about their strengths and failings. However, clip and resources should non be wasted on measuring consequences that may hold an insignificant or no impact on pupils Ã¢â¬Ë acquisition. Besides there is a certain sum of hazard of kids being confused with assorted labels and attacks, which may alter as students leave school scenes. Alternatively, a broad assortment of learning methods and an apprehension of an person Ã¢â¬Ës needs consequences in a category environment that is inclusive, appealing and that makes scholars aware of their ain qualities. Most significantly, kids should come out of a school system as whole Ã¢â¬Ëcomplete Ã¢â¬Ë scholars able to dispute and accommodate assorted attacks to larning. They should derive an apprehension of what their strengths are and how to utilize them so they can maximize their possible, and be cognizant of their failings and how to better and better themselves.Word count: 2706
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Discuss this statement. In 2005, Kofi Annan, former United Nations General, made the memorable statement that there could be Ã¢â¬Ëno development without security, and no security without developmentÃ¢â¬â¢. This sparked a debate among multilateral agencies, governments and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) about the effectiveness and targeting of international aid. Kofi Annan and the UN observed that violent conflict, poor governance and human development, for example reducing poverty and improving education, were interconnected. As well as this, they found that progress towards human development is impossible with political instability and poor governance but at the same time, areas of deprivation and poverty create fear within communities that allows terrorism, civil war and crime to erupt. During the past decade multilateral agencies, such as the UN, the World Bank and major donor governments have acknowledged that peace, political stability and good governance are required in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs) for development. In Sub-Saharan Africa civil wars and regional conflicts have prevented progress because the resources that should have been devoted to development have in fact been lost through armed conflict. An example of this is Somalia, in east Africa with a Human Development Index of just 0. 284, where 20 years of civil war has created lawlessness, anarchy and a state without an official government, since 1991. Islamic insurgents including the Al-Shabaab group, with an estimated 14,000 militants and connections to Al-Qaeda, have controlled much of southern Somalia since 2008. Piracy on the Indian Ocean, off the coast of Somalia, is also a major problem in progress towards development. Dozens of foreign ships bearing food aid have been waylaid and about 10 billion dollars has been collected through piracy in ransom money and cargo value. This situation, affecting much of the coast surrounding Somalia, has prevented development from trade and foreign investment with an estimated 1. 25 billion dollars lost through potential trade opportunities. In contrast, the self-proclaimed state of Somaliland to the north of Somalia is having a construction boom. As well as this, the area has low crime rates and low fear of violence mainly due to greater group homogeneity but also because the port of Berbara, on the coast of Somaliland does not suffer from piracy so foreign aid is able to enter the country and hence development has occurred. Also, population structures within a country can impact upon the rate of development. In the past 40 years, 80 per cent of civil conflict outbreaks have occurred in countries with more than 60 per cent of the population under the age of 30. Many of these countries have been faced with autocratic governments, where life expectancies are, on average, 9 years less than democratically governed countries and infant mortality rates are 25 per cent higher than in democracies. However as these countries, with youthful populations, advance along the demographic transition, with declining birth and death rates, their vulnerability to civil conflict decreases due to lower dependency ratios and in turn a greater proportion of population at working age which allows for greater personal savings and government spending. A youthful population can be a tremendous advantage to society if they are educated, healthy and living in a safe world. This means that there will be many potential workers for the future, paying taxes, but most of these countries lack adequate economic capabilities to realise this potential. Afghanistan, in stage 2 of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM), has a population of 31. 9 million, a total fertility rate of 6. 8 and 45 per cent of the population under the age of 15. This is has been mainly due to the fact that educational and career opportunities were non-existent, before 1980, and it was seen that women should stay at home which has dramatically influenced the demographic and economic situation of the country. Although, some development has started to take place with improvements in health care, small rural schemes, such as drainage systems and health clinics, being built through the National Solidarity Programme and a Hydro Electric Power turbine setup in the Helmand region which produces 33 megawatts of electricity annually. Inadequate and unequal human development is also a cause of political instability as well as an outcome. Poverty, hunger, poor health and education and oppression can create popular resentment towards governments. Where these problems coincide with separatist tendencies, the result may be armed conflict and civil war. Hence, it is argued that to achieve security and peace human development issues must have priority. In many countries some development can take place without security but this can also be observed at a smaller scale. On a local scale, it is often believed that without security of land tenure, housing will not develop. The huge pace of urbanisation in LEDCs has shown that large areas of previously empty land have been overrun by the development of poor, informal housing. In Bangalore, over 50 per cent of informal, slum housing, greater than 6km from the city centre is not Ã¢â¬ËdeclaredÃ¢â¬â¢ and there is no security of tenure, yet the residents continue to build. This shows that they are rarely willing to invest into housing that is anything more than semi-permanent without the security of being able to make sure they remain. In Mumbai, 90,000 of these dwellings were destroyed and 300,000 people were left homeless. Although, in areas such as Rochina in Sao Paulo, the opposite can occur. Here, one area within the country received granting for some security has resulted in development. Buildings are now being built with bricks rather than wood, roofs have tiles instead of corrugated iron and sewage systems have been installed. The continued development of the area is reliant on further improvements in security. While multilateral organisations and many world leaders believe that development can only be effective with security and security can only be achieved with development, some objections are still present. Some NGOs fear that this belief will encourage governments in LEDCs to divert international development aid to military spending to defeat separatist groups and crack down on political opposition. This in turn could escalate conflict, violate human rights and set back the whole development process.