Thursday, November 28, 2019

A Test of Ethics

A Test of Ethics Free Online Research Papers In the past when news was related to cheating, the focus was usually aimed at students who take tests. Current trends are shifting that focus to those who give tests. Reports and studies related to the teaching profession document actions that range from subtle coaching to blatant manipulation (Cizek, 2003). These practices are seen in every level of education including post secondary education. Since the enactment of the 2002 No Child Left Behind law, teachers and administrators are under intense pressure to increase their schools’ test scores (Grow, 2004). With the stakes set so high, a minority of teachers are â€Å"reaching to the test† (Posner, 2004), manipulating testing procedures, and sending the wrong message to students. The majority of educators plays by the book and teach with high moral standards. â€Å"teachers spend an incredible amount of time and energy focusing their curriculum on what is tested, and these pressures lead people to do some peculiar things† (Asimou, Wallack, 2007). At Actis Junior High in Bakersfield, California, seventh-grade teachers altered their lesson plans to cover narrative writing after the principal informed them it would be included on the 2005 writing test (Asimou, Wallack, 2007). In San Diego at Mar Vista High School, an unidentified algebra teacher admitted to tutoring an 11th- grader taking the state math exam (Asimou, Wallack, 2007). â€Å"Teaching to the test† focuses on material that will be on standardized tests. This method of teaching usually results in better test taking skills. However, a rise in standardized test scores does not always reflect improvement in real academic performance. Teaching to the test also narrows curriculum, encouraging administrators, instructors, and students to focus on memorization of isolated facts. This takes away from the development of problem solving abilities, organizational skills, and communication abilities (Posner, 2004). When the government decided to become involved in education, they had standardized tests made up to cover certain subjects. These tests would monitor the progress of students. However, the government also was interested in making sure that educators were teaching properly. Each state is interested in how well teachers are teaching and students are learning. A reward system is in place for teachers and school districts. It is a perceived notion that when students do well, teachers are teaching properly. Studies suggest when Standardized testing begins, usually third or fourth grade, â€Å"teachers stop teaching†¦really teaching† (Patrick, 2007). Teachers will do what they need to do to stay employed. They teach to the test. They avoid being reprimanded, making their school look bad, and loss of their job. Students leave school with a few basic facts and the ability to take a Standardized Test (Patrick, 2007). In the past ten years, there has been a surge of teachers and administrators that cheat. Stacey Moskowitz, a Bronx, New York educator, was ordered by her principal â€Å"to make sure they passed† Standardized reading tests (Labi, 1999). Moskowitz was given cheat sheets to check her students’ answers before they filled in the answer sheets. Moskowitz went undercover to expose New York City’s public school system. At 32 elementary and middle schools, 50 teachers and two principals helped students cheat on Standardized tests. Some hinted at correct answers. Others used scratch paper to avoid multiple erasure marks. Some teachers even changed answers at the end of the day (Labi, 1999). New York City is not the only city experiencing these trends. An Atlanta teacher was caught passing out copies of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills before the exam. Another Georgia teacher was reprimanded when seven of his special-education pupils scored a perfect score o the language section of the test. In Texas, 38 schools were investigated because of numerous erasures on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills. An Austin school district was indicted on charges of tampering with the state test results (Labi, 1999). More subtle ways of cheating occur when teachers fail to appropriately supervise students taking the tests. Other educators allow extra time to complete the tests. Some teachers even encourage low-achieving students to be absent of testing days (Cizek, 2003). Cheating in schools is not solely isolated to elementary and high schools. It also occurs in post secondary schools as well. According to Katsilometes and Butterworth (1997) Sports Illustrated Magazine reported and accused the UNLV coach for helping one of their future basketball stars to alter his Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)scores. Sports Illustrated reported that the player took the SAT and passed the NCAA mandated minimum score, which he took nine times before and failed. The UNLV coach was also accused of altering the American College Test (ACT) scores for NBA All Star Lamar Odom. In high school, Lamar Odom was ranked 312th in his class of 334 and he carried a 71.2 average, barely passing, prior to taking the ACT. Lamar scored 22 on the ACT which ranked him in the top 42 percent of all senior high school students nationally. Recently Florida State University was involved in an academic cheating scandal which resulted in two faculty members being terminated. An investigation by the school showed that 23 students were involved in cheating. A part time tutor and a full time athletic department employee were giving teat answers while students were taking the test. They were accused of filling in answers on quizzes and typing papers for students who were absent. Several universities such as Minnesota, Miami (Fla.), Marshall, Kentucky, Howard, Georgia, Fresno State, California, and Baylor had similar allegations in the last decade which resulted in severe penalties (USAToday, 2007 p. 10C). There are several steps that can be taken to prevent cheating. The first and easiest step is to raise the issue of cheating. Make school teachers and administrators familiar and aware of testing guidelines. Encourage and implement ethics training so that the school personnel are aware of appropriate and inappropriate behavior. Second, revise test disclosure laws. Many states have laws that require the return of all testing material after the testing is done. Unethical teachers are known to keep copies of these tests and alter their curriculum. Economic costs increase for the states because each year new tests have to be developed. Thirdly, spelling out the supervision guidelines can reduce cheating. Test supervisors should be educated in professional codes of responsibility and be trained to recognize and react to cheating. Last, schools should investigate and punish cheaters. Currently most tests are given behind closed doors with little outside supervision. At many scho ols, investigating cheaters lie with the school principal or district leaders. Independent sources could more effectively undertake such steps as random sampling, overseeing testing procedures, protecting whistle blowers, and enforce stiffer penalties for those caught cheating (Cizek, 2003). It is clearly evident that educators who cheat are sending the wrong message to students. Blaming standardized testing and the No Child Left Behind act seems misdirected. Teachers ignore their responsibility to their students when the cheat. Cheating distorts our ability to accurately gauge student progress and understand what is happening in our schools (Cizek, 2003). Worse than the lessons lost, however, are the lessons learned. Many of the kids did not even know they were cheating. They were just following the teacher’s orders. â€Å"It’s important for them to do what the teacher wants; they need to think the teacher is looking out for their best interests,† says Moskowitz. â€Å"At that age, in the third grade, I don’t think they had any clue† (Labi, 1999). Bibliography Academic cheating scandal detailed at Florida State. USATODAY, Retrieved Oct 16, 2007, from Asimov, Nanette Wallack, Todd (2007, May 13). The teachers who cheat. Some help students during standards testor fix answers laterand Californias safeguards may leave more breaches unreported. Retrieved October 16, 2007, from Web site: Balassone, Merrill Teachers stumble, cheat on state tests. (2007, Aug 18). The Modesto Bee Cizek, Gregory J. (2003).When teachers cheat. Education Digest. 68, 28 Grow, Brian (2004, Jul 5). A spate of cheatingby teachers. BusinessWeek Jacob, Brian, Levitt, Steven, D. (2004, Winter). To catch a cheat. The pressures of accountability may encourage school personnel to doctor the results from high-stakes tests. Hoover Institution Stanford University, [4(1)] Katsilometes, John, Butterworth, Scott (1997, July 02). UNLV assistant accused of cheating. Las Vegas Review-Journal, Retrieved Oct 16, 2007, from Labi, Nadya (1999, Dec 20). When teachers cheat; Under pressure to improve test scores, are schools giving students the wrong kind of lessons? Time, [154(25)], 86. Patrick, Jane (2007, Oct, 5). Whats wrong with standardized tests and how they can be fixed. The Peoples Media Company, from Posner, Dave (2004, May, 4). What. The Professional Journal for Education Phi Delta Kappan, Retrieved Oct 6, 2007, from Research Papers on A Test of EthicsStandardized TestingResearch Process Part OnePersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseGenetic EngineeringInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesCapital PunishmentHip-Hop is ArtBringing Democracy to Africa

Abolition of the Death Penalty essays

Abolition of the Death Penalty essays Resolved: that the United States Federal Government should ratify or accede to, and implement The Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty In order to facilitate clarity and promote clash we exercise the affirmative right to define by offering the following definitions. should: is used to express moral obligation (taken from Websters New International Dictionary, second edition, 1961) Observation 2: Criteria and Resolutional Analysis A. In order for the United States to uphold its democratic ideals to the truest form possible, it must follow the basis of our democracy: the U.S. Constitution. Any law that contradicts what is in the constitution should not be allowed to exist. The death penalty is one of those laws. Rev. Jesse Jackson, Legal Lynching, Racism, Injustice, and the Death Penalty, 1996, pgs. 84 and 85. The U.S. Constitution protects the right of American citizens to their life, liberty, and property. In this, it has become the model for other countries wishing to codify human dignity, due process, and fundamental fairness in their own legal standards. The Eighth Amendment in particular the one prohibiting cruel and unusual punishment has been duplicated by new nations around the world. Germany and South Africa, two nations born from the ashes of brutal and bloody conflicts, have ruled in favor of life by banning the death penalty in their constitutions. The worldwide trend is toward the abolition of capital punishment... We recognize torture as a violation of the Eighth Amendment, but not the ultimate torture the threat of death and actual execution. Is not death by lethal injection, firing squad, or electric chair cruel and unusual punishment? Is not such punishment just as cruel as stoning or other forms of torture we call primitive? Is it not cruel to keep someone on d...

Monday, November 25, 2019

The social problems essay

The social problems essay The social problems essay The social problems essay  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It is not a secret that social problems form the basis of social policies. According to researchers, â€Å"it is impossible to talk about social policy history, analysis and provisions without referring to the social problems those policies are designed to address†(Ginsberg Miller-Cribbs, 2005, p. 56). There are many severe social problems that have a strong impact on the lifestyle and development of each member of American society. Some of these problems include unemployment, high incarceration rates, school dropout rates, concentrated poverty, drug trade, health problems, low marriage rates, high divorce rates, discrimination against gays and lesbians, etc. (Korgen Furst, 2012).   African American communities are among minority groups which are eminently influenced by social problems that are â€Å"partly the result of past and present racial discrimination against black people† (Shelby, 2013, p . 241). The problem of high divorce rates among African Americans is really an actual social problem, which requires prompt and comprehensive solutions. Thesis statement: The problem of high divorce rates among African Americans caused by a variety of factors, including unemployment, should be addressed by comprehensive social policies, aimed at providing support to families at risk of divorce.Description of the selected social problem The social problem selected for the discussion is the problem of high divorce rates among African Americans. This problem can be qualified as a social problem because it is caused by â€Å"general patterns of human behavior or social conditions that are perceived to be threats to society by significant numbers of the population, powerful groups, or charismatic individuals and that could be resolved or remedied† (Maris, 1988, p. 62). In other words, this problem requires social response in order to avoid violation of social norms and values.The nature of the problem lies in the fact that Black men and women are less likely to remain married than other minority groups, such as Hispanics and Asians. As a result, there is evidence that Black children have to live in sole-parent families. According to the statistical data, approximately 66% of Black children live in single-parent households compared with only 24% of White children (McRoy Griffin, 2010). In addition, â€Å"African American divorce rates are higher than those for Whites or Hispanics† (McRoy Griffin, 2010, p. 164).As a matter of fact, this social problem can be explained by some sociological theories, including symbolic interaction theory, conflict theory, feminist theory and functionalist theory. These theories can be applied to the social problem like high divorce rates among African Americans in different ways. According to researchers, high divorce rates found in minority groups is connected with certain feminist issues (Andersen et al., 2014). Women are willing to work and make serious decision by themselves. According to feminist theory, family can be conceptualized as a system of power relations, in which women are more powerful than men (Andersen et al., 2014).   Symbolic interaction theory highlights the meaning of an individual’s behavior and that of other individuals as social interaction. High divorce rates can be explained by different experiences of people involved in family relations. Conflict theory â€Å"interprets the family as a system of power relations that reinforces and reflects the inequalities in society† (Andersen et al., 2014, p. 311). The problem of high divorce rates involved conflict in relations, which may be associated with inequalities in society. Functionalist theory explains family relations as a complex integrative institution, aimed at maintaining social stability. This theory can be applied to the social problem like high divorce rate because it refers to the criticism of comple x family relations (Andersen et al., 2014).Discussion of the scope and consequences of the problem  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It is necessary to understand the scope of the problem of high divorce rates among African Americans. The problem suggests that there are serious problems with intimacy in intimate relations, which often lead to divorce. Statistical data show that â€Å"compared with white women, African American women are 25 % less likely ever to have been married and about half as likely to be currently married† (Besharov West, 2010). These facts help to assess the scope of problem.There are certain individual and social implications of the problem of high divorce rates among African Americans. There is much evidence that can be used to support the discussion of implications. To start with, researchers suggest that there are major individual implications. Divorce can become a challenging process to many individuals and family members because a singl e-parent family is at risk for developing a wide range of problems, including social, emotional and behavioral problems (Birditt et al., 2010). Research findings point out to the fact that Black children raised by single mothers are three-four times more likely to live below the poverty line than those children who are raised by two parents (Andersen et al., 2014; Birditt et al., 2010). They tend to have poor academic achievement, high dropout rate and serious behavioral problems.In addition, the high divorce rates among African Americans have major social implications for the emotional and psychological development of African American children. This fact means that family structure has a strong impact on social development of children.   African American communities are concerned about the overall health of the ethnic group because children who are raised in single-parent families have fewer chances to get good education and succeed in professional career (Besharov West, 2010). Actually, three-four years after the divorce, the income of Black families remains 47 % lower than if the parents had remained married (Besharov West, 2010).In general, social science experts have discussed the problem of high divorce rates among African Americans. Their conclusions are methodologically sound.Assessment of society’s responses to the problem  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Social problems can be viewed as the sources for the development and implementation of specific social policies (Korgen Furst, 2012). All members of our society should consider this problem, no matter what color of skin they have. Much can be done about this problem. Undoubtedly, public policies and other formal responses are essential for finding solutions to the existing problem. However, it would be better to involve all members of our society into implementation of concrete actions to reduce high divorce rates among African Americans. Marital education can work to reduce di vorce rates.In general, the existing societal efforts to solve the social problem are working. There are many initiatives that contribute to reducing divorce rates and improving the well-being of disadvantaged families. Community marriage initiatives are specially developed to â€Å"strengthen marriage and increase marital stability by addressing relevant laws, policies, and cultural factors† (Birch et al., 2009).It is necessary to explain unmarried and divorced people that marriage can bring a host of benefits to them and children. On average, married African Americans look happier, earn more money, and choose healthier behaviors than their unmarried peers. As a result, their children are healthier and more satisfied with life choices (McRoy Griffin, 2010).Presentation of an alternative supported by scholarly researchThe proper alternative should be selected to give effective response to the existing social problem. One of the effective alternatives is to provide financial support to Black families at risk of divorce (Besharov West, 2010; Birditt et al., 2010; McRoy Griffin, 2010). This financial support could come from governmental programs and social programs aimed at reducing unemployment. In addition to this alternative, it is necessary to address the following risk factors of divorce through effective educational programs: young age; rape; religion, education, social status, poor communication and other factors (Besharov West, 2010; Birditt et al., 2010; McRoy Griffin, 2010).Undoubtedly, there may be negative consequences of the alternative response. For example, White families and Hispanic families may protest against this alternative because it addresses only African Americans. In addition, there may be certain problems with funding. Finally, there may be negative attitudes of African Americans who want to divorce anyway.Conclusion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Thus, it is necessary to conclude that the social problem discuss ed in this paper requires finding the proper solutions through implementation of specific social policies and programs. Compared with White men and women, African Americans face serious problem, which may have both individual and social implications. It is very important to find adequate solutions to this problem. One of the alternatives is to provide financial support to Black families at risk of divorce and enhance educational practices aimed at addressing certain risk factors of divorce.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Family Business Essays

Family Business Essays Family Business Essay Family Business Essay Family council A family council Is a governance body that focuses on family matters, frequently developing family participation policies, and dealing with liquidity Issues and estate planning family council benefits are -promote communication -provide a safe harbor for the resolution of family conflicts -support the education next generation family members about family dynamic and ownership issues Boundaries The family council and board of directors are separate Dillon. Therefore, two of them still relate to each other At annual shareholders meeting, the board of directors is elected by the family. Family members exercise their responsibilities as shareholders and are informed of company performance, returns on shareholders equity, and dividends to be distributed. Board of directors Board of directors Is a legal entity Board of directors can come from family and non-family employee The requirements of a director based on: his / her reputation competence willingness to serve on the board highly qualified candidate To be a board of directors, the employee should come through the Management- top management CEO and broad directors The primary responsibilities of a board of directors include : Set the company strategy Looking out for shareholders interest Ensuring the ethical management of the business Being a respectful critic of management Reviewing CEO performance Advising the CEO Bring fresh perspective issues Assisting on the succession and continuity process The Family constitution is a statement of the principles that outline the family commitment to core values, vision, and mission of the business that shareholders will follow in their relations with each other, other family members, and company managers. : Components The content of family constitutions is different depend on the size of the family or the tags of development, and the involvement of family members in the business. However, a typical family constitution will cover the following elements: Family values, mission statement, and vision. Family institutions, including the family council, the education committee, the family office. Senior management. Authority, responsibility, and relationship among the family, the board, and the senior management. Policies regard to family members employment, transfer of shares, CEO succession. Why should we have one? A family constitution provides a formal link between business matters and family affairs. As a result, it facilitates communication between the family, the owners and business managers. From that the family business evolves and successive generations enter the business. It leads to: The expectations of the business held by these individuals begin to diverge. As the business expands, it makes increasing financial and management demands on its owners A family constitution helps the family deal with these changes constructively. It requires the family to think about important decisions before they have to be made and to find agreement on important family and business goals.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Management Accounting Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Management Accounting - Assignment Example Vision matched the idealism of TC's founders (students of a great drama teacher). Vision also reinforced the mission "to entertain our audiences with plays produced from the Canadian and international repertoires, and to develop the theatrical community." Mission and vision are summarised in Principles that combine artistic excellence, financial stability, and organisational sustainability. Objectives are clear, developed and refined with inputs from everyone (Board all the way to customers). Annual strategic and budget planning sessions inspire commitment to TC's purpose, core values, and vision. TC is in a creative business and has a system in place to get inputs from the creative/production side, including inputs to the budgets and planning system. However, there is no clear answer to "how does TC create value for customers" beyond the sentimental ones (tradition, legacy, culture, etc.). TC has to think of a better answer to the question, because this would help solve its revenue-generation problem. McCabe had an ambitious performance goal: increase subscribers threefold. Backed this up with performance standards, codes of conduct, and incentive systems to motivate, inform, and align staff with the organisation's objectives. Sales teams were given freedom to be creative within limits, and titles changed from "ticket clerks" to "customer service teams". However, strategic boundaries seem incomplete. The case lacks details on defined market position, which affects the theatre's capacity to generate sufficient revenues to cover costs and wipe out deficits. TC has to define what business it is in, who competitors are, whether pricing strategies are competitive, and how to generate loyalty amongst customers. Of course, there are idealistic supporters ready to contribute cash to bridge deficits, but unless TC develops a plan to widen its market base, it cannot sustain profitability. And whilst it evaluates its current customer base, it needs to find ways to target new customers, new age groups (below the present 40 to 65 age group), develop the right pricing for each, and develop new materials to compete with other providers in the market (how can TC compete with video games, peer group activities, extreme activities, etc.). TC has to look to the future, instead of only learning from the past. Related to this is the need to determine which amongst its existing customer groups (the 45-60 years age group is one generation!) are profitable, and whether it can increase their numbers or generate higher profits from those who can afford to pay more. TC may be too concerned with survival, but it has to learn to cut down its level of risks using its accounting system to identify where profitable and sustainable opportunities exist. Interactive Controls (Monitoring, Key Uncertainties) TC has internal control systems, a way of monitoring sales and expenses, getting the

Paper of analyzing gender performance in Frozen Essay

Paper of analyzing gender performance in Frozen - Essay Example l mold of society-generated female behavior expectations to create a persona of a self-assured and assertive individual which is more akin to a male personality while Olaf the Snowman is portrayed as a more sensitive and emotional character akin to the stereotypical female persona. To illustrate these gender defiances, when Anna’s sister turns up missing, Anna decides to take on the responsibility of finding her in a very difficult natural environment. This illustrates that she is confident and self-sufficient, willing to give the impression that she can surely take care of herself. When she leaves Hans, a male, to maintain watchfulness of the castle, it again illustrates her capability to face the dangers she might encounter without assistance from a male character. In fact, it is not the male characters that, proverbially, save the day. It is Anna who releases a powerful punch to the enemy to be the heroine of the story, something typically reserved for the masculine persona under traditional male stereotypes. Anna determines that she must rescue her sister and spare her from danger, reasserting (giving) that she can be authoritative, dominant and even brawny when circumstances call for this behavior. Furthermore, there is a scene where Kristoff suggests that he â€Å"might cry† because of all of the ice he is witnessing. This gives Anna an opportunity to give a dominant persona, when she informs Kristoff to â€Å"go ahead, I won’t judge†. In a male/female relationship, it is typically considered that males serve as a comforting force for the more emotional woman in periods of stress or conflict. In this scene, Anna does not appear to be emotionally-affected by the environment and unconsciously gives off a more masculine personality. It is likely that if Disney producers were intending to support gender stereotyping, Anna might also have illustrated an emotional response and been witnessed crying in the heat of the moment. This too tends to break the mold of

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Violence cannot be properly understood if it is approached as an Essay

Violence cannot be properly understood if it is approached as an evolutionary aspect of human nature'. Discuss - Essay Example Research related to sociopathy and psychopathy shows that violent activities are generally committed by individuals whose psychological functioning is different from normal individuals, which leads to the fact that violence should not be understood as an evolutionary aspect of human nature because there is a causal relationship between abnormal brain chemistry and violence. This paper intends to discuss this thesis statement. Violence cannot be understood as an Evolutionary Aspect of Human Nature Ferguson (2008, p.321) defines aggression or aggression control as evolutionary or adaptive traits of human nature; but, when he talks about violent behavior or violent anti-social behavior, he asserts that it is such an â€Å"aggressive behavior that is excessive or uncontrolled and results from either of two pathways† which include instrumental violence and reactive violence. The former type is related to â€Å"genetic contributions to aggressive personality traits† (Ferguson ) while the second type involves biological deficiency or damage in the impulse control system. Thus, we prove that violent behavior can be better understood if it is approached through genetic or biological aspects of human nature rather than evolutionary aspects. However, we cannot totally ignore the evolutionary aspects of human nature being responsible for violence. ... Among children, there are many psychological disorders that convert into violent behavior. Youth Violence (2001), A Report of the Surgeon General, has suggested that there are two developmental pathways leading to violence: Early- and Late-Onset Trajectories. â€Å"Children who commit their first serious violent act before puberty are in the early-onset group, whereas youths who do not become violent until adolescence are in the late-onset group† (Youth Violence, 2001). Disorders like Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) which, at later stages, gets converted into Conduct Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder are also responsible for the development of violence in one’s personality. The causes of ODD are mainly biological in addition to evolutionary. Damage or injuries to specific delicate areas of a child’s brain can cause his behavior to suffer which is a biological cause for ODD. Neurotransmitters, that are chemicals present in the brain, can also be he ld responsible for ODD as their abnormal levels in the brain hinder with the proper communication of neurons with each other causing their messages to not being transmitted throughout the nervous system. The presence of other psychiatric disorders like ADHD or mood disorders also initiates the occurrence of ODD in the child’s behavior. Studies have blamed the chemical serotonin to be chiefly responsible for oppositional, defiant, hostile and violent behavior. Aggression and violent behavior that occurs after puberty also involve abnormality in the hormone, testosterone. Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) is a psychiatric condition in which the individual becomes violent and violates other people’s rights because APD snatches away

Change of Social Status of women in society Essay

Change of Social Status of women in society - Essay Example The norms differ culture to culture and religion to religion, however no religion in the world commands degradation of any sex physically or psychologically. The underscore of this dissertation is the story "Another evening at the club" by Alifa Rifaat (1983), revolving around a Muslim girl. The writer skillfully uses the body language and gestures to illustrate the traditions and customs of the family therefore highlighting male dominance in the content. It is an excellent example of women being influenced by men, the role changes from father to husband but the prejudice is intact. The society is constructed of cultural norms, traditions and religious beliefs, illustrating a concept of specific roles for men and women, which are widely accepted often unconsciously. All such principles governing the society, often enforced through social institutions like schools, families and workplaces accentuate ascendancy of men over women. In many areas there is no concern regarding womens education, civil rights, the girls are married off young to men double their ages. Families bearing multiple daughters feel indebted to any suitor that might come to them, especially ones that are not financially secure. As depicted in the story where the suitor asserts a dowry priced in accordance to the young girls beauty. The girls family is showed to be obliged by his gesture. According to the article Social Status of Women (ch.2) such practices are common in various communities; a bride price system quite similar to the dowry system is present in areas of Western hills and Indo-Arya n communities. Similarly another custom called Tilak; in which the brides price is conferred and presented to the grooms family before marriage, is practiced in the Maithili communities of Western Terai. In earlier times the dowry used to consist of simple household supplies and clothes, however in recent times the trends are

Monday, November 18, 2019

Analysis of a survey conducted on a website Assignment

Analysis of a survey conducted on a website - Assignment Example Most people view exercise as a vital lifestyle Majority of the individuals who participated in the survey viewed exercise as an important aspect of health maintenance. 3% of individuals viewed exercise as not essential, 97% of the participants viewed exercise as important. Most individuals from the survey live an active lifestyle, by spending a lot of time outdoors. 5 to 6 hours is the average time spent outdoors by the majority participants Most people who participated in the survey, spend 5-6 hours when is weather is favorable. 31% of the participants spend 5-6 hours outdoor in a good weather. 23% spend more than 8 hours outdoors; contrary to the 15% that spend 0-2 hours outdoor. Insecurity, boring state, injuries and other vices are related to trails According to the data on the survey as to why people do not like trails; time factor was the most eminent factor; with 118 in number. The majority participants do not use trails because they do not have enough time. Trails are not convenient for the 99 participants, 85 individuals avoid trails because their friends are not interested in trailing. 48 people view trails as scary, 39 people state that rails limits their exercise routine, and 33 participants say that trails are boring.

Impact of Financial crises in the real estate investment sector of UAE Research Paper

Impact of Financial crises in the real estate investment sector of UAE ( UAE is a country which is United Arab Emirates) - Research Paper Example Also, construction highly contributes to the economy of a country. These sectors intensify and make the financial structures extra adequate by assisting in lessening informal sources of finance, enhancing access, and assisting in mobilizing savings. In addition, real estate lending, including development and commercial investments have the capacity to make the financial system to be unstable, predominantly if connected to speculative and recurring market dangers, as highlighted by the continued worldwide financial calamities (Fried, 2012). This paper will look at the effects of financial predicaments in the real estate investment sector of United Arab Emirates. Growth of Companies   At the start, the companies which were affected were those which were engaged in mortgage lending and home construction in a direct way. This is because the companies could not get financial support through the credit sector. Almost one hundred corporations became bankrupt in the recent recessions. The growth of companies has been slowing down after the recent recessions. House building companies, despite the tremendous discounts they have been giving on their works, have found it difficult to make sales. This is because a large number of companies cannot contend with the mark down in value in the largely suffering resale sector (Fried, 2012). A large part of house sales made by real estate companies now incorporate foreclosure. This is an indication of persistent market failure. Moreover, foreclosures are becoming a prominent component of the limited market situation that they are increasingly being used as the standard. Also, manufacturing companies have sharply decreased their activities thus lessening their growth (Fried, 2012). Individuals are no longer able to buy new residences, which mean that house constructing companies are compelled to desert construction assignments. Think of all the materials that are employed in furnishing and constructing a household; all the compan ies that develop these materials, in general, have suffered decreased sales to create market value. Manufacturing companies, already suffering deterioration, are falling in a dramatic manner. These companies are also filing for bankruptcy after shutting down a number of their dealerships and factories, despite unparalleled economic assistance from the United Arab Emirates governments. Also, a number of chief companies have crashed, taken over by the different governments, or attained under constraint. Growth of Investment The financial crises have also had an impact on the growth of investment in the United Arab Emirates. The financial predicaments have caused a spectacular alteration in the purchasing decisions of home owners and have had a tremendous effect on the revival of the property markets in the United Arab Emirates. The financial crises have caused a decline in the growth of investment. Several studies conducted in the United Arab Emirates indicate that the financial issue s have had a significant impact on the purchasing decisions which are made by home owners. The outcomes indicate that over 50% of home owners have a feeling that the financial problems have had an impact on their property purchasing resolutions. In addition, almost 33% of homeowners are waiting for the property values to stabilize before they can take part in the real estate market (Schweizer,  2009). It has also been highlighted that prior to the financial crises

Friday, November 15, 2019

Playing Mind Games In Video Games Media Essay

Playing Mind Games In Video Games Media Essay and Video games and : a bright title in nowadays world of pop culture, yet a very controversial area of it. Simply known as electronic games that interact with the user using video feedback technique, video games are growing ever popular. Ranging from core, casual, serious, to adventurous genres, video games succeed in captivating their users in a total different world of theirs. Are games that good for the coming generations? Is another virtual world necessary besides that they are living in? Well, obviously, as fun as video games are as tricky they actually are. According to researches, video games are growing to be more confusing, addictive, and time demanding. These later problem must and can be solved by many ways such as monitoring, filtering, and timing video games. One of the most common criticisms of video games is that they expose users to immoral themes and provoke violence. The contemporary video game involves a fully realized imaginary world Malcom Gladwell * points out, but is this world safe? New console games are so developed that they are able to simulate the real world we live in, and most players-which are youngsters- can easily fall into the trick. Never forget that as Postman and Powers declares:moving pictures are a kind of language themselves*, we should stand then at what kind of language is this! Many popular games handle serious themes like: war, wrestling, killingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ and with the complex graphics they provide the game becomes captivating and even influencing. I once saw my cousin making up a street fight after few rounds playing the famous:counter strike, grand theft auto, call of dutyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦. Actually, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City came under similar criticism, also for implying allegedly racist hate crimes : The game, taking place in and Vice Cityand , involves a gang war between Haitians and Cuban refugees, and the player often plays for either to fight against one another. Haitian and Cuban anti-defamation groups strongly criticized the game for these actions, including using insulting language such as and kill the Haitian [emailprotected] . Does anyone like his children growing ignorantly into such race-based decisive beings? And thats not far away from taking place when games are overused (which happens frequently in the real world). And thats not it, gamers spend hours detecting related ideas like new weapon releases, or learning some dangerous moves that can really be harmful! They tend to be more aggressive and irritated as many studies revealed, when they should be more interested in peace and a more civilized world. Another is that spending time playing video games causes addiction accompanied with serious attention problems. Gladwell states:players have to explore and sort through hypothesis in order to make sense of the games environment, which is why a modern video game takes at least forty hours to complete *. Logically, so much attention and time to waste for fun (whatever sort of games it was)! So we can define video game addiction as the excessive use of console games that interrupt daily life. Cases have been reported in which users play continuously, isolating themselves from social contact and concentrating almost entirely on winning some rounds rather than more important life events. The pleasure and fun that such games provide loosens the users control on the playing time interval and attracts him more and more, so he/she may end up playing, for example, 20 rounds straight without even noticing. During gaming the special sensational treats in the game provide satisfaction that is mor e demanded by the users unawareness, like the sense of being amused or even the rush provided by a race or a battle! Moreover, all the effects contained in these video graphical products are mesmerizing. Malcom Gladwell continues *:players are required to manage a dizzying array of information and options, which keeps all their senses busy and expires their attention span. The more teen sits around playing video games, the more at risk they will be for learning problems and attention problems. Or else how do we expect that a gamer caught with supreme dazzling dimensions to be interested in simple everyday tasks!? How many times do parents have to call their children when playing console games until they first say an empty yes? It usually requires more than calling their name to catch their attention and receive a real meaningful response for their demands! And if observed more carefully, gamers of all ages tend to get bored easily. Children get bored at school when nothing is enough to derive their energy back for class activities and suffer learning problems. Adult players get grumpy frequently at work too; they just do their job with no minimal enthusiasm. Why? Well, who cares for the real world when he has his own virtual but exciting, superb, and wonderful world! In addition, video games include advergaming that victimizes players and urges them to fulfill certain objectives. To make this more clear consider Pepsi man a video game released by PepsiCo. , this game is recorded to make people thrive for Pepsi whenever playing it (at least thats what happened to me)! Advergaming is the practice of using video games to advertise a product, organization or idea. Games for advertising are mostly categorized as a type of serious game, these games are found to have a strong promotional or implied purpose other than pure entertainment. Smart programmers hired by companies put the producers interests in selling their products into video games under the title of entertainment. The product placement in online multiplayer games is done by including the wanted products, services and brands into the game. This entire trick and treat pattern leaves the person exposed to such conspiracy hypnotized. Hypnotized to play more, to consume more, and to be taken adva ntage of more! Dont forget the amount of subliminal messages included in such console games that overcome the right of free choice a human being should enjoy. A hidden message is information that is not immediately recognized, and that must be discovered and analyzed before it can be known, not the case in vigorously played console games. In the computer game Doom II, a message can be played in reverse to hear and you must killand . Does it make sense when children supposedly gaming for innocent entertainment hear stuff not suitable for their age and perform implied tasks not favorable to be handled? Are video games safe then? Such methods silently make products and ideas appealing to our deceived minds. That is definitely improper. Such controversial problems must be solved for the sake of the coming generations and this can be done in different ways. After all theres nothing to stop companies from producing such games (a video game isnt illegal), neither there is a way to take one way to bring joy to the children from them. Yet human beings are still able to control their daily intake of perceived matter, they can supervise the quantity and quality of it as a mean of protective technique. A way to minimize such negative sides of console games is a proper monitoring of the quality of the games introduced to a certain country, area, and house. At the country level, the official departments for social and educational affairs should be assigned the task of trying, analyzing, and authenticating the games and its contents. Thus, the government will limit the entrance of harmful video games according to objective measures. After all, selection then serves as a kind of sieve or screen through which our knowledge passes before it becomes our knowledge* says Newman and Genevieve, and in this case we are selecting video games so that their harmful content willnt become a part of our knowledge. The violent games will therefore stay away of the childrens reach and the virtual fighting madness will decrease from the innocent-hood. Also, the players will be protected, so that no greedy business men will get advantage of ignorant citizens. And no more hidden messages will control the minds of fun-seeking users. But this isnt enough to solve the whole issue. Even if the harmful content is removed, the visual and audible effects are still there in the game, the attractive elements are still present, and those are at the essence of games and cant be removed. So another aid is needed, and this is the parental supervision, or any superior authority attention. The playing time is to be monitored so that the child/gamer is having enough fun, but not enough to know his attention off. Another task is a second inspection of the games content to decide its convenience to the age, mental and growth stage, and tolerance of the player. Moreover, campaigns can be held across the country to educate parents and older players about the disadvantages of video gaming. And explain for they why exactly are they to deal carefully with such entertainment method, urges them to inform other players if not present, suggest more useful games to try. Or even talk about more fruitful entertaining methods like hanging over with friends and family or reading books What proceeded reveals the problems caused by video games. So its about time to understand that video games are not always human beings friends. People were not put on the wide planet Earth to waste 40 hours weekly inside their rooms, mesmerized infront of the pc or TV, playing video games. We were made to move around, to go outside and play, to work, to exchange thoughts, talks, and feelings with others, to think. It is time to re-evaluate how every individual, parents, and children live their lives. Dont let more people waste their lives in virtual worlds full of illusions. Resources/reference: * Malcom, Gladwell, Brain Candy: Is Pop Culture Dumbing Us Down Or Smarting Us Up?, paragraph 6, line 9 / paragraph 7, line 8 / paragraph 8, line 1 * Neil, Postman and Steve, powers, Television News: The Language of Pictures paragraph 2 line 8 *Newman, P.Birk and Gneviene, B.Birk, Selection, Slanting, and Charged Language, paragraph 4 line 1

Impact of Domestic Violence on Children

Impact of Domestic Violence on Children Contents Introduction Chapter 2: The impacts of domestic violence on children Chapter 3: Protecting children from domestic violence Chapter 5: The multi-agency approach to child protection Chapter 6: Policies to protect children against domestic violence Conclusions and Recommendations References Introduction This dissertation looks at domestic violence and the impacts domestic violence has on children and child protection issues. The dissertation begins with a description of domestic violence, including an estimation of the extent of the problem, illustrated with statistics. The dissertation then moves on to analyse the immediate and long-term impacts of domestic violence on children’s health, education, personality, socialising and future relationships. The dissertation then moves on to the issue of protecting children from domestic violence in terms of the child protection issues that need to be taken into consideration. The dissertation then moves on to a discussion of the role of the mother and why her socio-economic status and culture is important. Protecting the mother, in terms of protecting the child, is then discussed, in terms of whether, for example, it is best for children to live with both parents, even when there is domestic violence occurring. The dissertation then moves on to an analysis of the multi-agency approach to child protection, examining its advantages and disadvantages. The available services for children living with domestic violence are also discussed, as are the policy and legislation against domestic violence and pro child protection in the UK. Through this, the dissertation moves on to analyse the intervention strategies that are available to protect children, in terms of the extent to which prevention is possible and how. The dissertation then moves on to a critically analysis of the roles of policies, legislation, agencies and professionals in protecting children, in terms of whether the legislation enhances or hinders the effectiveness of professional intervention, and what should happen next. The dissertation ends with a conclusions and recommendations section, which provides recommendations as to how child protection can become more effective. This section presents a description of domestic violence, including an estimation of the extent of the problem, illustrated with statistics. Domestic violence, or intimate partner violence, or interpersonal partner abuse, as it is also commonly known, is a pattern of aggressive behaviours, either physical, sexual or psychological (or all three) that adult partners use against their intimate partners (Ganley, 1995). The Home Office classifies domestic violence as, â€Å"Any violence which occurs between current or former partners in an intimate relationship, wherever and whenever this violence occurs. The violence may include physical, sexual, emotional or financial abuse† (Home Office, 1998). It is known that domestic violence is mostly perpetrated by men against women victims and that it often begins, or gets worse, around pregnancy (Nicolson et al., 2006). Domestic violence is generally repetitive, in that once it has occurred once, it is likely to be repeated, either in the same manner or utilising a different form (psychological, sexual or physical), with each form of the violence interacting with the other form and causing problems for the victim(s) of the violence, who are not only the partner but also any children that may be present in the household (see Ganley, 1995). Shockingly, a high proportion of children living with domestic violence are themselves being abused, with almost 80% of the children who are on the ‘at-risk’ register coming from homes where domestic violence is known to occur (see, for example, Mullender and Morley, 1994; Department of Health, 2002). In addition, research has shown that there is a correlation between being an abusive partner and having witnessed abusive behaviour in one’s childhood (see O’Leary, 1987). In terms of the theoretical models that have been posited to explain domestic violence, social exchange theory suggests that human interactions are guided by seeking rewards and avoiding costs and punishment (see Blau, 1964), with domestic violence tending to occur when being violent does not outweigh the rewards on offer (see Gelles and Cornell, 1985; 1990). Following this reasoning, therefore, one of the ways to reduce the prevalence of domestic violence is to increase the cost attached to being a ‘batterer’ (i.e., a person who inflicts violence on an intimate partner) through, for example, creating and enforcing criminal laws against domestic violence (see Danis, 2003). Deterrence can, after all, be defined as, â€Å"the state’s ability to diminish the incidence of a prohibited action through legal threats which clearly indicate that the costs of an action would be greater than any benefits derived from it† (Dutton, 1995; p.242). Other theories suggested to explain the prevalence of domestic violence include social learning theory, which suggests that people learn to be violent through reinforcement (i.e., receiving a reward or being punished directly after an aggressive act has taken place) or through modelling (i.e., basing one’s actions on what one has witnessed) (see Bandura, 1973). As has been seen, intergenerational transmission of the behaviour that leads to domestic violence is possible and, indeed, occurs in many situations (see O’Leary, 1987 and Mihalic and Elliott, 1997). On this basis, many ‘batterers’ are treated, attempting to reverse the behaviour that leads to domestic violence on the premise that what has been learned can be un-learned (see Danis, 2003). The British Crime Survey, and annual survey of crime conducted in the UK, can be used to find prevalence data of domestic violence. Mirrlees-Black and Byron (1996) showed that, in 1996, around 4% of women interviewed admitted some form of domestic violence in the year previous to the survey, with women twice as likely as men to have been injured by a partner in the year previous to the survey. In addition, Mirrlees-Black and Byron (1996) found that 23% of women had experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their lives, with those most at risk being the under 25s and those in financial difficulties. It was found that only half of the victims had reported the domestic violence, and of the half that had reported the domestic violence, this was to a friend of family, with police and medical staff being notified only in a small proportion of cases (Mirrlees-Black and Byron, 1996). Mirrlees-Black (1999) again used the British Crime Survey data to analyse the prevalence of domestic violence, finding that, similarly to the 1996 survey (Mirrlees-Black and Byron, 1996), around 4% of women reported some form of domestic violence in the year previous to the study, with women twice as likely as men to be the subject of domestic violence. Mirrlees-Black (1999) estimated that there were 6.6 million incidents of domestic violence in the year previous to the survey, with 2.9 million of these incidents involving actual physical injury. This survey (Mirrlees-Black, 1999) revealed that 12% of women had been assaulted on three or more occasions, which Mirrlees-Black referred to as chronic victims. Similarly to the 1996 survey (Mirrlees-Black and Byron, 1996), women under 25 were most likely to report domestic violence, with 34% of women in this category reporting some form of domestic violence, higher than in the previous, 1996, survey (Mirrlees-Black and Byron, 1996). In terms of the actual domestic violence perpetrated against these women, pushing, shoving and grabbing were the most common types of assault with injury occurring in 41% of the domestic violence episodes (Mirrlees-Black, 1999). Alarmingly, around a third of the women surveyed who reported domestic violence episodes revealed that their children had been aware of the last violent episode (Mirrlees-Black, 1999). In addition, chronic victims of domestic violence were usually the victims of more serious types of attack (Mirrlees-Black, 1999). Walby and Allen (2004) present the most recent survey of domestic violence using the British Crime Survey, showing that domestic violence is still widespread with 36% of women reporting some sort of domestic violence episode, although this figure represents concentrated episodes of chronic domestic violence and/or multiple episodes of domestic violence throughout their lives. The study found that 13% of women had experienced some form of domestic violence in the year prior to the survey (up from 4% in the 1999 survey reported by Mirrlees-Black (1999) and that for women subjected to domestic violence, the average number of domestic violence episodes per year was twenty (Walby and Allen, 2004). On this basis, Walby and Allen (2004) estimated that there had been 12.9 million domestic violence episodes in the year prior to the survey, up from 6.6 million in the 1999 survey (Mirrlees-Black, 1999). The 2004 survey also revealed that 2% of women who admitted domestic violence had been the s ubject of a serious sexual assault inside the home (Walby and Allen, 2004). Walby and Allen (2004) found that those women who lived in a household earning less than  £10,000 were three and a half more times likely to be the subject of domestic violence than a women in a household earning more than  £20,000, although it was admitted that the correlations between domestic violence and poverty are unclear. For example, poverty could be the cause of domestic violence, or could be the outcome of domestic violence, in that women who have fled domestic violence often end up living on low income (Walby and Allen, 2004). In terms of assessing the prevalence of domestic violence, studies have shown that it is difficult to provide a realistic estimate, in reality, as many women do not seek help and even when faced with medical professionals with whom they could speak, for example their GP’s, most women do not willingly discuss their problems (see, for example, Bonds et al., 2006). Indeed, research has shown (see, for example, Boyle and Jones, 2006) that women who are the subject of domestic violence frequently only disclose when healthcare staff directly enquire about this possibility, many of whom actively stated, when interviewed, that they do not ask about such matters so as not to offend the patient, even though evidence shows that women who are not the subject of domestic violence are unlikely to be offended by such a question (Boyle and Jones, 2006). One of the most comprehensive studies of the reported frequency of domestic violence against women has been reported by Bradley et al. (2002), who surveyed 1871 women attending general practice through a cross-sectional, self-administered anonymous survey. 40% of the women surveyed had, at some point in their lives, experienced domestic violence by a partner, with 12% of women reporting that their GP had approached them about possible domestic violence (Bradley et al., 2002). In addition, a worrying 69% of the women surveyed reported controlling behaviour from their partner, with 28% admitting to feeling afraid of their current partner (Bradley et al., 2002). Most of the women surveyed voiced support for routine enquiry about domestic violence as part of regular check-ups with their GP, suggesting one route for monitoring the presence of domestic violence in the community (Bradley et al., 2002). Elliott et al. (2002) suggested that better GP training in this issue would lead to highe r detection rates and better care for the victims of domestic violence. As Gerbert et al. (2002) suggest, other risk behaviours that were once considered taboo (such as HIV and alcohol and drug abuse) have been tackled, in that medical professionals routinely ask about such matters in consultations. It is thus not acceptable that domestic violence is not addressed in such a manner, given the high prevalence of this and the deleterious effects this can have on the victims and any children who are present in the household (Gerbert et al., 2002). It is suggested that it is a general lack of training that stops medical professionals from enquiring about such violence, and that the lower domestic violence screening rates, compared to the screening rates of other risk behaviours, may reflect the medical professionals beliefs that they do not know how to screen or intervene or their belief that such interventions may not be successful (Gerbert et al., 2002). It is suggested that screening rates can be improved by educating medical professionals as to the many b enefits that identifying domestic violence can bring to the victims (Gerbert et al., 2002). This section of the dissertation analyses the immediate and long-term impacts of domestic violence on children’s health, education, personality, socialising and future relationships. In terms of children’s exposure to domestic violence and maltreatment, Osofsyky (2003) looked at this issue in terms of prevention and intervention, showing that on the basis of available research, there is no doubt that huge numbers of children are being abused as part of the presence of domestic violence in the household, although the effects on children of this abuse, as a result of domestic violence, depends greatly on the child’s individual circumstances, on their additional risk factors and their susceptibility. Herrenkohl et al. (2008) reported similar results, showing a massive overlap in physical child abuse and domestic violence, which was especially prevalent in situations with other stressors, such as adverse socio-economic conditions, for example. Hartley (2002) also looked at this issue, and found that there is a substantial overlap between domestic violence and child maltreatment, finding that adverse socioeconomic factors were more likely to correlate with domestic violence and child neglect than with child abuse per se, although child abuse was present in a shockingly high number of cases, suggesting, as Osofsky (2002), that domestic violence goes hand-in-hand with child maltreatment, either through child neglect as a result of domestic violence or child abuse by the perpetrator of the violence as part and parcel of the domestic violence (Hartley, 2002). Hester and Pearson (1998) looked at domestic violence in the course of their work with abused children, finding that domestic violence was present in 70% of the cases of child abuse they dealt with, showing that the presence of domestic violence is a major factor in child abuse cases. It was suggested, as a result of this, that it might be useful to screen for domestic violence as routine practice, in terms of this being a possible predictor of child abuse, either current, in which case it could be identified and treated, or future, in which case, if the domestic violence is dealt with, might never occur. Gorin (2004) looked at understanding what children say about living with domestic violence, showing that children are often more aware of domestic violence than is realised, although they don’t often understand what is happening, nor why it is happening (Mullender et al., 2002). It was also reported that children worry about their parents more than is recognised, even though most children choose not to talk about this to anyone, and actively try to avoid the problem by distracting themselves physically and emotionally (Gorin, 2004). When asked about why they chose not to share their experiences with others, a fear of not being believed by professionals was the generally reported concern, with the fear that help will not be forthcoming when asked for being another commonly reported concern (Gorin, 2004). In addition, children report not having any idea of where they can go to get help, which stops them asking for help, although the majority of children affected by domestic viol ence reported that they long for someone to talk to about the violence, in terms of having someone to listen to them and to provide comfort and reassurance to them (Gorin, 2004). During the course of the research, it was found that children most asked for information to help them understand what was happening to their parents, and why they weren’t able to stop the violence (Gorin, 2004). In practical terms, this responsibility, of knowing about the violence but not being able to do anything to stop it, and feeling they do not have anywhere to turn to report the violence, can lead to many problems for the children. Children who have experienced domestic violence generally feel they have to be more responsible in the home than othert children, in terms of undertaking more practical tasks around the home, often as a way of trying to avoid the violence by pre-empting arguments, for example (Gorin, 2004). This responsibility, or knowing about the violence but feeling there is nothing that can be done about it, and the responsibility of taking on extra tasks, can lead to children developing sleep problems, being tired, and not paying as much attention as they need at school, leading to problems with their education (Gorin, 2004). Fantuzzo et al. (1997) looked at the effect of domestic violence on children, showing a myriad of adverse effects in children exposed to domestic violence, especially amongst those children who are already exposed to other risk factors such as drug abuse and/or adverse socioeconomic conditions. Fantuzzo and Mohr (1999) continued the work of Fantuzzo et al. (1997), looking at the effects of domestic violence on children, showing that domestic violence has many adverse effects on children, which are modified according to many factors, such as the child’s age, the nature of the violence, the severity of the violence and the existence of other risk factors in the children’s lives (such as poverty and substance abuse, for example), but which are, nonetheless severe. Childhood exposure to domestic violence can lead to aggressive behaviour, to increased emotional problems, such as the onset of depression and anxiety, to lower academic achievement and to lower levels of social skills (see Fantuzzo and Mohr, 1999). Baldry (2003) looked at bullying in schools following exposure to domestic violence, through a cross-sectional study of 1059 Italian school students using a self-report anonymous questionnaire. It was found that those children who had been subjected to domestic violence (i.e., interparental violence) were far more likely to bully whilst at school than those children who had never been subjected to any form of domestic violence, thus showing a direct negative effect of domestic violence on children’s behaviour (Baldry, 2003). Bauer et al. (2006) also looked at the relationship between bullying and intimate partner violence, through a self-report questionnaire of 112 children, and found, similarly to Baldry (2003) that children who had been exposed to intimate partner violence in a home setting were more at risk of developing physical aggression and internalised behaviours than children who had never experienced intimate partner violence in the home setting. Hall and Lynch (1998) looked at the lifelong effects of domestic violence on children, finding that separating the causes of domestic violence from its effects and from other correlated factors, such as poor parenting, poverty, substance abuse, for example, is difficult and that, as such, pinpointing the specific effects of domestic violence on children can be difficult. Hall and Lynch (1998) report, however, that children in violent households are three to nine times more likely to be injured and abused, either directly or in the course of trying to protect their parent. In addition, children from violent households are more likely to suffer a range of emotional and psychological problems, including self-harm, eating disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide, along with stress-related health complaints, such as insomnia and irritable bowel syndrome (Hall and Lynch, 1998). In addition, these behavioural and psychological problems can lead to other problems, such as involvement in violence and/or bullying (as seen, see Baldry, 2003 and Fantuzzo et al., 1997), educational failure and/or dropping out of, or being excluded from, school (Woodward et al., 1998) (Hall and Lynch, 1998). In addition, it has been found that if a mother decides to leave her partner and go in to a shelter for the victims of domestic violence, this can lead to the children feeling isolated from their previous friends and their established social networks, leading to further problems for these children who were already exposed to a high level of stress and emotional and psychological problems (Hall and Lynch, 1998). In addition, it is also known that being exposed to violence in the home can lead to juvenile crime, with many child victims of juvenile crime being the subject of youth criminal sentences (Hall and Lynch, 1998). In addition, the effects of domestic violence on children are long-lasting, with anti-social behaviour at the age of seven being highly correlated with violent behaviour towards partners in later life (Hall and Lynch, 1998), mediated, as has been seen, through the process of social learning theory (Bandura, 1973). Chapter 3: Protecting children from domestic violence This section of the dissertation addresses the issue of protecting children from domestic violence in terms of the child protection issues that need to be taken into consideration. As children suffer many and varied consequences of domestic violence, including direct child abuse by the perpetrator of the violence and indirect consequences of witnessing the violence, such as emotional, psychological and physical ill-health, the child protection issues that need to be taken in to consideration are many and varied. In those cases where child abuse is suspected, the child needs to be protected against this abuse. This could mean removing the child in to care, or working with the mother to encourage the mother to move, with the child, in to a refuge to avoid the domestic violence. The particular option chosen by social workers depends on the risks assessed in the particular situation. In terms of protecting children more generally, in terms of identifying possible negative effects on children from domestic violence, for example, all health professionals should be aware of the effects of domestic violence, and possible symptoms of domestic violence on children, which, if not physical, can be noted in the child’s behaviour. Medical professionals who come in to contact with children should be trained in detecting these signs of domestic violence in children, with adequate screening programmes in place to detect such signs and to enable children to deal with the problems that domestic violence presents to them, in terms of being given the opportunity, in a safe and confidential manner, to talk about what is happening in their household, how they feel about this, what problems this is presenting to them and what needs to be done about the situation. Children are perhaps more likely to want to talk to the school nurse, or to a GP than to any other professionals, as there is some previous relationship established and some form of trust that has already been built up (Hall and Lynch, 1998). It is essential that teaching about domestic violence be mandatory for all professionals involved in multi-agency teams dealing with child protection issues (see Hendry, 1999). This section of the dissertation presents a discussion of the role of the mother and why her socio-economic status and culture is important. Protecting the mother, in terms of protecting the child, is then discussed, in terms of whether, for example, it is best for children to live with both parents, even when there is domestic violence occurring. It has been found that there is a substantial overlap between domestic violence and child maltreatment (see Hartley, 2002), in that adverse socioeconomic factors are more likely to correlate with domestic violence and child neglect (including child abuse). Walby and Allen (2004) also found that those women who lived in a household earning less than  £10,000 were three and a half more times likely to be the subject of domestic violence than a women in a household earning more than  £20,000, although it was admitted that the correlations between domestic violence and poverty are unclear. For example, poverty could be the cause of domestic violence, or could be the outcome of domestic violence, in that women who have fled domestic violence often end up living on low income (Walby and Allen, 2004). Thus, whilst there are some correlations as to the socioeconomic status of the mother and the probability of being the subject of domestic violence, the links have not been researched fully and, as such, no causal relationships can be found. What is clear, however, is that where there is poverty, or perceived financial problems, there is more likely to be domestic violence, and that where there is domestic violence, there is likely to be some form of child neglect or child abuse also going on. Mothers, therefore, have a responsibility, within the framework of them being victims themselves, to their children, in terms of protecting them, as far as possible, from the violence. This is itself a complicated issue, however, as many women have nowhere to flee to when they leave a violent partner, meaning the women often end up in temporary refuges or low-standard rented accommodation, often outside of the area where their children go to school, often leading to further psychological problems for their children, who then feel isolated from their friends and support networks, which can lead to further emotional and psychological problems for these children (Gorin, 2004; Hall and Lynch, 1998). It is reported that the mother often stays in the household and subjects herself to domestic violence because of fear of what leaving the household would do to their children (see Nicolson et al., 2006). Hazen et al. (2006) looked at female care-givers experiences of domestic violence and behaviour problems in their children, finding that serious problems are faced by children when the mother is subjected to domestic violence, and that these children need to be helped as far as possible in terms of addressing the problems that these children face. If the mother decides not to leave the abusive partner, therefore, the mother has a responsibility to her child(ren) that she will ensure that they are treated as far as possible for these problems. Again, however, this is complicated by the fact that mothers often want to hide the fact that they are being abused from their children, and, as such, do not discuss this with their children. This is a fallacy, however, as shown by Gorin (2004), as children are often far more aware of what is happening than they are given credit for, and the untreated consequences of the domestic violence can lead to major future health and behaviour problems fo r children (see, for example, Hall and Lynch, 1998). The problems facing mothers who are the victims of domestic violence are many and varied. They are the subject of abuse themselves, which can leave them feeling ashamed and not willing to discuss this with anyone, not even their children. Their children, aware of what is going on, but unable to talk to their mothers then begin to develop problems, which – if the mother even recognises these problems are then not treated, as they are viewed, by the mother, as part and parcel of the same humiliating violence they are subject to. The effects of the violence are thus perpetrated, often with severe long-term consequences (Hall and Lynch, 1998). It will be argued, however, that is the responsibility of the mother to protect her child, as the child’s care-giver, against domestic violence and against the effects of domestic violence. However, this is not as straight-forward as it seems, for, in addition to the humiliation that women feel when being abused, there are also financial concerns about how the mother would support her child(ren) if she left the violent partner. Many women victims of domestic violence argue that subjecting their children to poverty is worse than having them witness domestic violence (Gorin, 2004) and so they stay with the partner who is violent towards them, subjecting their children to the range of emotional, psychological and physical health problems already discussed (see, for example, Hall and Lynch, 1998). Thus, the responsibility of a mother to protect her child(ren) against domestic violence and against the effects of domestic violence is a complicated issue. If there is child abuse present, it is obviously the mother’s responsibility to involve the police, and to ensure that the perpetrator is brought to justice, although, as has been seen, this is not as easy as it sounds, as women often have difficulty in approaching the police, witnessed by the low reporting rates of serious instances of criminal domestic violence to the police reported in Walby and Allen (2004). If, however, as has been seen, the violence is mainly directed against the mother, and the mother feels it is better for the sake of the children, on balance, to stay in the violent household, whilst the violence is only directed towards her, then that is the mother’s decision, as a balance between the effects of the domestic violence on the children and the potential effects of moving to a new place and living in worse conditions than their current conditions, and the further emotional and psychological problems this would present to the child(ren). If the mother makes the decision to stay with the violent partner as this is, on balance, the best option out of two possible sub-optimal options, then, in these situations, where the violence is not thought to be serious enough, by the victim, to warrant reporting or to warrant leaving the partner, even though the child(ren) is/are being affected by domestic violence, the question then becomes how to protect the mother, in order to ensure the best protection of the child. This question will be elaborated on in the next sections of the dissertation. Chapter 5: The multi-agency approach to child protection This section provides an analysis of the multi-agency approach to child protection, examining its advantages and disadvantages. The available services for children living with domestic violence are also discussed, as are the policy and legislation against domestic violence and pro child protection in the UK. Through this, the dissertation moves on to analyse the intervention strategies that are available to protect children, in terms of the extent to which prevention is possible and how. As shown by Mirrlees-Black (1999), only about half of the victims of domestic violence told someone about the violence, most likely to be a friend or relative, with the police being notified of an attack in only about 12% of the violent episodes reported in the survey. Medical staff were the next likely to hear about the domestic violence, in about 10% of the violent episodes reported, and were reported to have been more likely to offer help and advice than the police (Mirrlees-Black, 1999). Overall, Mirrlees-Black, (1999) found it more likely that the victims of serious attacks (i.e., those regarded as a crime) would report these attacks to the police, with those women who felt responsible in some way for the attack being less likely to report the attack, even if the attack was criminal in manifestation (Mirrlees-Black, 1999). There is, thus, a massive problem with reporting domestic violence, something that

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Nature v. Nurture in Mark Twains Puddnhead Wilson and Those Extraordi

Nature v. Nurture in Mark Twain's Pudd'nhead Wilson and Those Extraordinary Twins What makes a person who they are is a difficult dilemma. Mark Twain's novel, "Pudd'nhead Wilson and Those Extraordinary Twins" is a critical analysis of how nature and nurture can cultivate emotions and free will, which in turn affects the life of individuals. "Twain's faltering sense of direction began about slavery, moral decay, and deceptive realities (Kaplan 314). The debate of `nature versus nurture' has been one of the most intriguing scientific and cultural issues for most of the twentieth century, in determining the behavioral aspects of human beings. The changes in environment, society, education, political influences, family values and morals and other external influences, combined with physical genes determines how mankind will evolve into adulthood. Both nature and nurture, in combination with emotions and free will, control the behavior of human beings and determines who we are. Anthropologists, who study humans and their origins, generally accept that the human species can be categorized into races based on physical and genetic makeup. For example, many slaves had physical differences from their counterpart white race, such as dark skin and wiry hair. Throughout history, the study of Sociology has had a significant impacted the `nature versus nurture' debate. Social Darwinism based its theory on genetic determinism and natural selection, advocating a capitalist economy, promoting racism and the inherent inequality of such as society. Karl Marx, also an advocate for capitalism and slavery, applied the Marxist philosophy to the practice of science, emphasizing environmental influences determined behavior. Max Weber is known his ... ...lard Stern, Nahra, Nancy. American Lives. New York, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 1997 Sandler, Martin W., Rozwenc, Edwin C., Martin, Edward C. The People Make A Nation. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, Inc. 1975. Skinner, B.F. A Brief Survey of Operant Behavior. Cambridge, MA: B. F. Skinner Foundation. 1938 Skinner, Ellen A. Perceived Control, Motivation, & Coping. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. 1995. Twain, Mark. Pudd'nhead Wilson and Those Extraordinary Twins. New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Company, 2005. Wachs, Theodore D. The Nature of Nurture. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. 1992. Wilson, Jim. Criminal Genes. Popular Science. Pars International Corp. New York, NY. November 12, 2002.

Medicine, Metaphysics and Morals Essay -- Ethics Health Medical Essays

Medicine, Metaphysics and Morals ABSTRACT: Moral decisions concerning what ought to be done always assume metaphysical presuppositions concerning the way the world is. In the field of biomedical ethics, some of the metaphysical presuppositions underlying many current discussions of issues of life and death seem particularly implausible. These include our assumption of the reality of social atomism and our beliefs relating to the possibility of autonomy. Given the implausibility of these two assumptions, many discussions have focused our attention on the wrong issues by reducing questions of alternative social practices to questions of individual preferences. Far from facilitating intelligent solutions to our problems, this merely clouds the issues involved. Obviously decisions about what ought to be done in any given circumstance presuppose the acceptance of beliefs regarding what can in fact be done. In short moral judgments presuppose metaphysical commitments, beliefs about the way the world is. Unfortunately, social pressures in most modern societies militate against the open admission of any metaphysical commitments on the part of persons involved in making moral judgments in the field of applied ethics known as biomedical ethics. Ethical decisions in the area of medicine need to be seen as acceptable to as large a segment of the community as possible. However, since the community in most modern societies is remarkably heterogeneous with respect to assumptions concerning the way the world is, any explicit reference to metaphysical assumptions on the part of one discussing biomedical ethics is apt to be challenged by at least some members of the community. Hence those involved in discussions of biomedical ethics tend to ... ..., 2nd ed. Veatch London: Jones and Bartlett 1997, p.33. (15) Beauchamp, T. - "Informed Consent" in Medical Ethics ed. Veatch London: Jones and Bartlett. 1997. p 195. (16) Hendin, H. - Seduced by Death: Doctors, Patients, and the Dutch Care. New York: W.W. Norton 1997 p. 157. (17) Pellegrino, E.D. - "The Place of Intention in the Moral Assessment of Assisted Suicide and Active Euthanasia" in Intending Death: The Ethics of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia ed. Beauchamp, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall 1996. (18) Ibid. (19) Ibid. (20) Hardwig - op cit. p 34-35 (21) For Example see: Brody, H. - "The Physician-Patient Relationship" in Medical Ethics. Second Ed. Veatch London: Jones and Bartlett 1997 pp. 75-79. (22) Chamblis, D.F.- Beyond Caring: Hospitals, Nurses, and the Social Organization of Ethics, Chicago 1996, University of Chicago Press p. 165.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Problems of students Essay

Top 10 Problems of Students While time spent at college is a fond memory and a happy experience for most, college life is not without its rough patches and problems. While each person problems are unique to their current circumstances, I know that there are a few problems that almost all college students deal with at least once during their time at school. College is not high school so please do not think its a walk in the park. Depending on what type of school you are going to, depends on what kind of problems you are going to face. Certain problems, you going to face regardless of what type of school you are going too. Most common problems of college student are the following. 1. First Day of School ? >> University students also face problems with making new friends. University is a new chapter in life, and with every new chapter, we have to try to meet new people and make new friends. It is normal for people to feel shy in the beginning, especially when they don’t know anyone around them. Students should learn to step out of their comfort zones and put themselves out there when trying to make new friends. It always seems that people are always just waiting for someone to approach them because they are too shy to make the first move. So, why not try taking the first step, and maybe you’ll find yourself heading towards a really wonderful friendship. 2. Relationship Thingy! >> Another problem we often hear students talk about are relationship problems. University students are usually at the age where they are looking for someone to share their lives with. We hear many stories about students getting into a relationship too quickly, and things going sour because both parties didn’t know each other well enough as friends. Maybe we should accept some advice from the older generation when they always say that we should always strive to get to know a person of the  opposite sex as a friend, before deciding if there is anything more to pursue with the person. There seems to be very little success rate when rushing into a relationship with someone we do not know well enough. 3. I’m so stress. >. < >> When a person faces any type of problems in their daily life, we will definitely find that the person is under high amounts of stress. This applies very aptly to the life a university student. Students are very susceptible to stress when they have any of the above mentioned problems. One good way to deal with stress is to exercise. Exercising helps release endorphins which is a hormone that helps our body relax and feel good. Students who exercise seem to be able to handle stress a lot better than those who do not exercise. 4. Problem everywhere -. – >> The unavoidable problem that students will have to face is problems with their studies. Whether it is a topic that is very hard to grasp, a misunderstanding with a group mate, or just not knowing how to do the work given to them, students will definitely face these sort of problems. It appears that when a student faces these sort of problems, they like to just keep it to themselves, or complain about it to their peer. The solution to these sort of problems is to address it and bring it up to the lecturer, or ask a friend if they can help you with it. Rather than just complaining that they do not understand what is going on, they should seek assistance to help solve their problem. 5. Still Sleepy ^o^/ >> Many students also suffer from irregular sleeping patterns. Students have assignments, projects and deadlines that appear almost daily after each class. A lot of them spend their time doing all those assigned work during the hours that they are supposed to be asleep. Some of them claim that they work better at night, but it is a  very unhealthy habit. It would be good if students could learn to finish up their work in the day time and leave the night-time to sleeping as that is the time where your body is regenerating, mending, and creating new cells. There is a discipline that should be built into a student when it comes to assignments. They should try their very hardest not to leave their work to the last possible minute. 6. My Hectic Schedule -. – >> Another problem that university students face is poor time management. Due to their busy lifestyles, students often find it hard to find a good balance between their  studies, social lives and working lives. Students should strive to have a planned schedule for their day so that they can try to maximize their productivity and not fall behind in any aspects of their lives. Students often have to learn to be independent and responsible with managing their time, when in university, away from the direct guidance of their parents. 7. Why you’re so Slow Internet? >_< >> With most universities and colleges making use of technology, it’s always an instant heart attack for you when it’s time to enroll in classes and check grades. To  make matters worse, everyone else is trying to access the website of your school hence the slower loading of the page and also in doing assignments and projects. You end up holding your breath while your heart attempts to break free from your body. The struggle is real! 8. Suspension Abangers *. * >> You stay up late at night and refresh your Twitter account every minute to see if there are suspension announcements. You wake up early in the morning with high hopes of class suspensions because the rain is too strong. You wait, and wait, and wait. You struggle with the thoughts of facing the storm or continue hoping for a class  suspension. You end up going to school anyway; but just as you’re finally at the end of your storm challenge, the suspension you’ve longed for comes and then you just stare at an empty space and mentally flip all the tables in your school. 9. Lack of Confidence >> There are students who do not believe in their ability to do well in college. Rather than focusing on their abilities and what they are capable of achieving, they place more emphasis on what they feel they can’t achieve. If you tell yourself, â€Å"I’ve always been lousy at math, I am going to fail this course,† then chances are, you probably will. 10. Commute line >> Don’t you hate it when you wake up early and leave early, but still end up being late for class because of those horrible commute lines? It’s definitely extremely frustrating when you arrive at the terminal or station only to find out that the end of the line is nowhere in sight These are just ten of the many problems that college students face. In the end, is college worth facing these problems and struggles? While students get stressed to the max, the good times outweigh the problem times and the college experience becomes one which shapes the minds and futures of many young people worldwide.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Case Study †Bob Knowlton Essay

Description Bob Knowlton was recently assigned to be a project head of the new photon unit at Simmons Laboratories. He received the assignment from Dr. Jerrold, the head of the laboratory. Unbeknownst to Knowlton, Jerrold had decided to bring in another person to the project, Simon Fester. Although Fester is obviously a brilliant individual, he lacks any sort of teamwork skills and derisively says the decisions made by groups exhibit a â€Å"high level of mediocrity†. This disturbs Knowlton because he feels that group participation in the meetings with all departments yields great decisions and builds camaraderie. At a meeting between the sponsors of the research and the project heads, Fester controls the presentation and the coinciding after-meeting. Knowlton feels that Fester has taken control of his project and has started to look for positions at other companies. He tenders his resignation a few weeks later, surprising both Jerrold and Fester. Unfortunately Jerrold did not anticipate and had made plans to move Fester to another project, assuming Knowlton would continue to head up the project. Now the once promising project is in shambles with no leadership. Diagnosis Although the relationship between Jerrold and Knowlton seemed strong and they talked frequently, there was still an obvious communication disconnect between regarding Fester. Knowlton does not clearly state to Jerrold what his misgivings about Fester are. In addition, Knowlton appears not to have confidence in his abilities and basically allows Fester to run the show. Theory Knowlton believes that he â€Å"happened† into his new position and feels that he had some lucky breaks in obtaining it. Locus of control is used to explain whether or not individuals think their outcomes are controlled internally or externally (Luthan, 2011) . Knowlton is exhibiting an external locus of control since he credits his ascension to his current position as a â€Å"miracle†. This coupled with the fact that he is threatened by Fester  looking at his graphs, running his meetings, etc., shows that Knowlton does not think his ability (internal locus of control) had anything to do with his promotion. Prescription Jerrold should make an attempt to rehire Bob back into the company. He obviously faith in his abilities and needs Knowlton’s experience to run the photon project. Jerrold also needs to work with his subordinates – including Fester – on interactive communicating and teambuilding. Fallout If Jerrold is unable to convince Knowlton to return to the company, he may have to pull back Fester from his new project to run the photon project or let the latter stagnate. However, unless Fester can learn to include team members in making decisions, the project will fail due to a lack of teamwork. References Luthan, F. (2011). Advanced Organizational Behavior. : McGraw Hill.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Oedipus and Antigone Essay

Oedipus and Antigone Essay Oedipus and Antigone Essay JT and Jordan Argument 3 Block 2 Antigone Is Justified Antigone was courageous and willing to die for her cause. She thinks burying her brother was the right thing to do. When she approaches her sister Ismene for help to bury Polyneices, she speaks fearlessly about her willingness to die for her cause, â€Å"But if I must bury him, and if I must die, I say that this crime is holy, I shall lie down with him in death and I shall be as dear to him as he to me† (1.2.57-60). She disobeyed Creon and buried Polyneices anyway, knowing that the punishment was death. She places dust on the body only to have it removed by the sentries, than again by the gods and the storm. When confronted about it, Antigone she responds saying, â€Å"Creon is not strong enough to stand in my way† (1.2.36). She isn’t afraid of Creon and she won’t let him hold her back. She isn’t afraid to die for her brother and what she thinks is right. She will fight to the death to try to prove she is right and what she is doing is fair. Later i n the play, when she is arrested, Creon confronts Antigone. She says to Creon, â€Å"I knew I must die, even without your decree, I am only mortal, and if I must die now, before it is my time to die, surely there is no hardship: can anyone living, as I live, with all evil about me, think death less than a friend? † (1.2.73-75). She stands firm even before the highest ruler of Thebes. She doesn’t try to run away from what she did. She didn’t deny what she did. She stood in front of Creon

The Scarlett Letter Essays - English-language Films, Free Essays

The Scarlett Letter Essays - English-language Films, Free Essays The Scarlett Letter The Effective Use of Symbolism The novel, The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne is an intriguing account of a Puritan community that experiences a breakdown in beliefs. The story deals with a woman, Hester, who commits adultery with a Calvinistic minister resulting in the birth of a child (Martin 110). As compensation for her crime of passion and her refusal to name her lover, Hester is sentenced to wear an embroidered scarlet letter on her bosom. It is this letter, or secret sin, that becomes the emphasis of the novel and assumes many different roles (Martin 111). Hawthorne starts the novel by portraying the literary reality associated with the different aspects of the letter (Martin 110). From the start, Hawthorne seems to say, this is a scarlet letter; because of that, it is capable of further meaning. The letter will have to carry the burden of the tale (Martin 111). Hawthornes use of symbolism is fully developed in the multi-meanings hidden in the scarlet letter through a variety of characters. The scarlet letter represents different ideals to different people and should be given the proper consideration (Martin 114). In the Puritan community, the letter is viewed as a moral obligation to inform others of Hesters sin, one that they feel should be dragged out into the sunshine (Hawthorne 43). They believe the letter symbolizes psychological and religious truth. The Puritans are a people amongst whom religion and law were almost identical, and in whose character both were so thoroughly Foti 2 interfused, that her mildest and severest acts of public discipline were alike made venerable and awful (Hawthorne 40). It is said that meager, indeed, and cold, was the sympathy that a transgressor might look for, from such bystanders at the scaffold (Hawthorne 40). The Puritans are firmly against Hesters actions and feels that she has disgraced them along with herself. They feel that she must take responsibility for her actions. The effect of her punishment however is not what the Puritans had hoped to achieve. Hesters sin has grown from that of passion to one of purpose. Even with Hesters sympathetic attitude, she was not filled with regret and therefore the letter had not done its task (Martin 122). To the Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale, the scarlet letter contains a whole new meaning. He views the letter as a constant reminder of his sin and cowardice. His guilt continues to grow as a result of his not being able to come forth in front of the community and take responsibility for his actions. His guilt and sin become magnified by his inability to stand beside Hester at the scaffold. Dimmesdale, also is ironically charged with questioning Hester and trying to convince her of the importance of identifying her fellow sinner (Hawthorne 52). He begins to feel more and more grief and it begins to affect his mental and physical state. He soon becomes weak; however, it is believed by the community to be because of his too unreserved self-sacrifice to the labors and duties of the pastoral relation (Hawthorne 80). When Dimmesdale is believed to be near death, the community again believes it is because the world was not worthy to be any longer trodden by his feet (Hawthorne 88). Dimmesdale se ems to be haunted by Satans emissary, in the guise of old Roger Chillingworth. This diabolical Foti 3 agent had the Divine permission, for a season, to burrow into the clergymans intimacy and plot against his soul (Hawthorne 94). Chillingworth proposes to Dimmesdale that a sickness, a sore place, if we may so call it, in your spirit, hath immediately its appropriate manifestation in your bodily frame (Hawthorne 99). However, Dimmesdale denies and refuses to discuss it with him. Dimmesdale becomes weaker and weaker because by the constitution of his nature, he loved the truth, and loathed the lie, as few men ever did. Therefore, above all things else, he loathed his miserable self! (Hawthorne 105). Before Dimmesdales death, he finally confesses to his sin on the scaffold and frees his soul and conscience. Spectators have testified to seeing on the breast of the unhappy minister, a SCARLET LETTERthe very semblance of that worn by Hester Prynneimprinted in the flesh (Hawthorne 182).