Saturday, August 31, 2019
Langston Hughes short poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Harlem,Ã¢â¬ seeks to understand what happens to a dream when it is put on hold. Hughes uses vivid imagery and similes to make an effort to describe what the consequences are to a dream that is lost. He attempts to bring to the attention the life of a Negro and how so many dreams are put off to the side because of prejudice against African Americans. The tone, imagery, and diction of Langston Hughes poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Harlem,Ã¢â¬ will be discussed in this paper. Ã¢â¬Å"HarlemÃ¢â¬ was written in 1951, which was around the time where prejudice against African Americans was still present (Cummings). Earlier, the civil war Ã¢â¬Å"had liberated them from slavery, and federal laws had granted them the right to vote, the right to own property, and so onÃ¢â¬ (Cummings). Although these civil rights were given to African Americans, prejudice continued to be a problem in society. They were put into poorly run segregated schools, given unskilled jobs, and were not allowed to use the same Ã¢â¬Å"public facilitiesÃ¢â¬ as white people (Cummings). This background information helps define the tone of the poem. The feeling of anger and frustration are conveyed through Hughes poem. Hughes was frustrated with the fact that their skin color was holding them back from pursuing their dreams. He asks a series of rhetorical questions to build up to the last line Ã¢â¬Å"Or does it explode? Ã¢â¬ (Hughes 691). This line sets the overall tone of the poem by describing the build up of the anger the blacks had toward the white oppression. Hughes final message of the poem is that this resentment they have held inside for so long will soon explode causing both political and social damage. The use of imagery is prevalent throughout this poem. Hughes begins the poem by asking, Ã¢â¬Å"What happens to a dream deferred? Ã¢â¬ (690). From there he uses vivid imagery in the form of similes to paint a picture of someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s dream that is wasting away. The images he uses touch on all five senses: sight, touch, smell, taste, and hearing. In the first two lines he uses the sense of taste by comparing a deferred dream to a raisin drying up in the sun. The original dream is a fresh, sweet grape but when it is put off to the side it dries up and turns into a black raisin. In lines four and five Hughes uses the sense of touch by comparing a dream to a sore by stating Ã¢â¬Å"Or fester like a sore/ and then run? Ã¢â¬ (609). A sore on our body is apart of us, just like an unfulfilled dream. An untreated sore will eventually become infected, just like a deferred dream will become more intense over time. The next line uses the sense of smell to describe a dream by comparing it to a Ã¢â¬Å"stink of rotten meatÃ¢â¬ (Hughes 690). Hughes is trying to convey that a dream that is put off will become less appealing. Lines seven and eight compare a dream to the sense of taste by stating, Ã¢â¬Å"Or crust and sugar over/ like a syrupy sweet? Ã¢â¬ (Hughes 690). This simile is describing that over time this dream will be Ã¢â¬Å"crustedÃ¢â¬ over and forgotten about. This last question then transitions into the only statement in the poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe it just sags/ like a heavy load. Ã¢â¬ (Hughes 691). This statement is describing the heavy burden that is put on the dreamer. It creates an image of defeat. The final question uses the sense of hearing by saying Ã¢â¬Å"Or does it explode? (Hughes 690). This line describes that if this dream continues to be put off, it will eventually explode and chaos will spread. These images help establish the situation and setting of the poem. The oppression of African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams will ultimately cause an Ã¢â¬Å"explosionÃ¢â¬ of resentment and hate toward the white race. The diction of the poem seems to be very straightforward. Hughes chose his words very carefully to have a meaning that must be interpreted by the reader. In line four, Hughes chose the word Ã¢â¬Å"festerÃ¢â¬ to represent the anger and resentment that had been building up inside African Americans from being treated unequally. The word Ã¢â¬Å"explodeÃ¢â¬ is used to represent the violence and chaos that will be the result of the festering anger thatÃ¢â¬â¢s building up. The word Ã¢â¬Å"rottenÃ¢â¬ also has significance towards it. If you put something aside and leave it there for a long period of time, especially meat, it will become rotten. Hughes is trying to convey that putting dreams to the side will cause them to become Ã¢â¬Å"rottenÃ¢â¬ and forgotten about. Hughes uses the word Ã¢â¬Å"crustÃ¢â¬ to describe the dream being set aside for too long causing it to Ã¢â¬Å"crust and sugar overÃ¢â¬ making it no longer usable (690). Just like syrup that is set out for too long causing it to harden and become no longer usable. Hughes uses the term Ã¢â¬Å"heavy loadÃ¢â¬ to describe the burden society put on African Americans by holding them back from pursuing their dreams. They must live with the Ã¢â¬Å"what ifÃ¢â¬ weighing them down like a heavy load. Hughes use of diction is chosen very carefully to depict the anger of African Americans for having to hold back their dreams and goals because of their race. Langston Hughes uses tone, imagery, and diction to convey the deferred dreams and white oppression of African Americans. Racial prejudice caused many African Americans to lose sight of their dreams. Although they were granted their civil rights at this time period, racial discrimination was still prevalent in society and prevented them from pursuing their dreams. Hughes tries to bring to the attention the consequences of the built up resentment and thrown away dreams of African Americans to the reader in his short poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Harlem. Ã¢â¬
Bernadette Ward RN, Midwife, Grad Cert Ed, MPHandTM, MHlth Sci Lecturer, Faculty of Health Sciences, La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australia. B. Ward@latrobe. edu. au Glenda Verrinder RN, Midwife, Grad Cert Higher Ed, Grad Dip Pub and Com Health, MHlth Sci Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Health Sciences, La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australia. ABSTRACT Alcohol misuse in Australia society is a community issue that can be addressed successfully within a health promotion framework. It is important that strategiesarenotperceivedasÃ¢â¬ËquickfixesÃ¢â¬â¢butwork toward addressing some of the underlying structural factors that contribute to the problem. Objective The objective of this article is to demonstrate how nurses can use the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion framework in addressing alcohol misuse among young people. Primary argument The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986) provides a useful framework from which to view the health of whole populations over their life course and in doing so work toward strengthening peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ health potential (World Health Organization 2005). The relevanceoftheCharterliesnotonlyintheinfluenceit has on establishing health promotion practice, but also theinfluenceithasonhealthpolicydevelopmentand health research (World Health Organization 2005). Conclusion Parents and community members have an important role to play in addressing alcohol misuse among adolescents but they need to be supported by nurses who can provide care within a health promotion framework. KEY WORDS alcohol, youth, Ottawa charter AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING Volume 25 Number 4 114 POINT OF VIEW INTRODUCTION The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (WHO 1986) has been Ã¢â¬Ëphenomenally influential in guiding the development of the concept of health promotion and shaping public health practiceÃ¢â¬â¢ (Nutbeam 2005). The Charter is now more than 30 years old and, as a landmark document, outlines a clear statement of action that continues to have resonance for nurses around the world. The Charter was re? endorsed in Bangkok at the 2005, 6th Global Conference on Health Promotion as it had been in Mexico? City (2000), Jakarta (1997), Sundsvall (1991) and Adelaide (1988). The principles and action areas have stood the test of time in nursing, health policy development and health research. Itisnowknowntherearemanyfactorswhichinfluence health and illness. There is generally no single cause or single contributing factor which determines the likelihood of health or illness; rather there tends to be a variety of causes. Factors that determine physical and mental health status include income, employment, poverty, education, and access to community resources. These social factors generate peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life experiences and opportunities which inturnmakeiteasierormoredifficultforpeopleto make positive decisions about their health. While there are many actions that a person can take to protect their own or their familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ health, very often the social context of their lives makes it impossible to take those actions (Talbot and Verrinder 2005). Health promotion and disease prevention strategies at the societal level are now part of the repertoire of nursing interventions. The Ottawa Charter highlights the importance of building healthy public policy, creating supportive environments, strengthening community action, developing personal skills and reorienting health services. Used collectively in any population setting, the action areas have a better chance of promoting health than when they are used in isolation. The Charter also highlights the potential role of organisations, systems and communities, as well as individual behaviours and capacities (Talbot and Verrinder 2005). AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING Volume 25 Number 4 Health promotion strategies have been used effectivelytoaddresshealthissuesthatareidentified as problems by the community. In Australia and throughout other western countries, the misuse of alcohol by young people has been highlighted as a problem (Toumbourou et al 2003). Alcohol misuse amongst adolescents For many Australians, alcohol consumption is a pleasurable part of everyday life (Parliament of Victoria 2004). However in recent years there have been several reports highlighting that the proportion of adolescents consuming alcohol and the amount of alcohol they are drinking is at record levels (AIHW 2008; White and Hayman 2006; Shanahan and Hewitt 1999). The long and short term sequelae associated with risky or high risk alcohol consumption include negative physical, emotional and social consequences (NHMRC 2001). Immediate harms include accidents, injuries, decreased scholastic and sporting performance, aggression, violence, assault, disrupted family relationships, high risk sexual activity,drivingwhileundertheinfluenceofalcohol and delinquent behaviour (Jones and Donovan 2001). Among young people aged 16 to 24 years, alcohol related harm is one of the leading causes of disease andinjuryburden(AIHW2006). Thesefindingsare consistent with population based research in Europe, United States and Canada (Jernigan 2001). CommunityconcernhasbeenreflectedinAustralian media reports about Ã¢â¬Ëteenage binge drinkingÃ¢â¬â¢ and the associated harms and generated debate in the Australian media about raising the legal age of alcohol consumption from 18 to 21 years (Editor 2008; Toumbourou et al 2008). In countries outside Australia, studies have demonstrated that raising the legal age for alcohol consumption reduces adolescentsÃ¢â¬â¢ access to alcohol and the subsequent associated harms (Ludbrook et al 2002; Grube 1997). While there are lessons to be learned from these settings, perceptions of health and how to address the determinants of illness have changed due to a combination of well informed Ã¢â¬Ëtop? downÃ¢â¬â¢ and well anchored Ã¢â¬Ëbottom? upÃ¢â¬â¢ approaches to policy making (WHO 2005). Previous reports in Australia 115 POINT OF VIEW have suggested there is little community support for any proposed changes to the current age for alcohol consumption and instead focus is more on the enforcement of current legislation (Loxley et al 2004). Australianparentshaveacriticalroleininfluencing the attitudes and beliefs of young people toward alcohol consumption. However parents have indicated they are looking for information, skills and community support to assist them in guiding their adolescentsÃ¢â¬â¢ safe use of alcohol (Shanahan and Hewitt 1999). The five action areas of the Ottawa Charter provides strategies from which nurses can support parents to promote health and encourage safe alcohol consumption patterns among adolescents. By using the framework of the Ottawa Charter, nurses have a strong evidence base and useful framework from which to support families and the broader community in addressing the issue of alcohol misuse among young Australians. Reflecting on their own professional setting, nurses can use the Ottawa Charter framework to guide and inform interventions aimed at reducing alcohol related harm among young people. Using the Ottawa Charter as a framework to address the determinants of illness associated with alcohol misuse 1. Action area 1: Build healthy public policy causes of ill health. Community action strategies are an important way of addressing alcohol related harm (Parliament of Victoria 2004). Regulation and restriction of sales, increased server liability, increased alcohol taxes and lowered blood alcohol limits are some of the policy areas which have been shown to be effective in reducing alcohol related harm (Parliament of Victoria 2004). Healthy public policy affects the entire population directly or indirectly. Nurses have a key role in informing and advocating on behalf of clients, families and the broader community and in promoting effective public policy. 2. Action area 2: Create supportive environments Building healthy public policy is one of the solutions to improving health. All public policy should be examined for its impact on health and, where policies have a negative impact on health, strategies implemented to change them. Healthy public policy is needed to ensure that people are safe. In recent years, initiatives to reduce alcohol related harm have increasingly been focused on high risk individuals (Parliament of Victoria 2004). While these strategies may be appropriate for individuals, they do little to reduce the burden of disease at the community level (Midford 2004). There are risks attached to focusing on individual behaviours and victim blaming instead of addressing the structural AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING Volume 25 Number 4 Healthy public policy assists in creating supportive environments that are important in ensuring that everyone lives in a place that is safe and enjoyable. Alcohol misuse is not just something that pertains to young people; it is a problem that impacts on all members of the community. In a society where alcohol is often seen as an integral part of life (Australian Government 2006) and alcohol misuse is implicated in one third of all road accidents (AustralianGovernment2001)whatisdefined as safe needs to be re? considered. Parents commonly supply alcohol to their adolescents (Graham et al 2006; Ward et al 2006; Shanahan and Hewitt 1999) and in Australia enforcement of current legislation to restrict underage access to alcohol is Ã¢â¬ËpatchyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Loxley et al 2004). As a result,manyadolescentsfindaccesstoalcohol easy. In addition, alcohol advertising that is targeted to youth is often linked with social and sexual success and hence contravenes the Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code (Jones et al 2001). Public policy designed to create supportive environments has resulted in the Ã¢â¬ËsettingsÃ¢â¬â¢ approach to health promotion, where working for change occurs through partnerships at the community level (Talbot and Verrinder 2005). Nurses, for example, have a role in 116 POINT OF VIEW facilitating interaction between teachers and parents and between local government and school communities so they can exchange information, ideas, clarify values (McMurray 2003) and identify strategies that will focus on reducing alcohol related harm among young people. Nurses can encourage and establish primary care partnerships to develop alcohol action plans designed to improve the health and wellbeing of adolescents. 3. Action area 3: Strengthen community action 4. Action area 4: Develop personal skills Strengthening community action is important and so there needs to be mechanisms by which the community can participate in decision making as a community and not just as an individual. Communities can determine what their needs are and how they can best be met. Thus greater power and control remains with the people themselves, rather than totally with the Ã¢â¬ËexpertsÃ¢â¬â¢. Community development strategies are one means by which this can be achieved. To date in Australia there have not been any formal consultations with youth about raising the legal age of alcohol consumption. Central to the success of the Ottawa Charter is increasing peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s control over their own health and issues that impact on it. The participation of youth groups is critical to the principles of equity and participation. In countries outside Australia, some community mobilisation programs have been effective in changing community factors (e. g. underageaccesstoalcohol)thatinfluence alcohol use amongst young people (Holder et al 1997). There are a number of successful community mobilisation approaches that have focused on reducing alcohol related harm among young people (Hingson and Sleet 2007; Hanson et al 2000). The role for nurses is to draw on these examples to successfully mobilise young people to be involved in the decision making process about issues that impact on their health and wellbeing. Developing personal skills is important if people are to feel more in control of their lives and have more power in decisions that affect them. Helping people develop their skills ensures that people have the information and knowledge necessary to make informed choices. InAustralia,manyparentsfindithard to communicate with their adolescents about alcohol (Shanahan and Hewitt 1999). It is alsoclearthatmanyparentsfindthemselves isolated and powerless to do anything about their adolescentsÃ¢â¬â¢ alcohol misuse (Shanahan and Hewitt 1999). Systematic reviews of alcohol and other drug education programs in schools indicate that effective school based programs should begin before initiation to alcohol and other drugs and that content should include social skills and resistance training. In addition, community values, societal contexts and information about drug related harm need to be included (Midford et al 2002). Alcohol education programs that provide information alone have limited success (Foxcroft et al 2003). Without an understanding of alcohol related harms and interventions to address those harms, parents and community members cannot support initiatives for changes (Howat et al 2007). Nurses can work with parents, teachers and students to provide formal and informal education (WHO 2005) which informs alcohol related harm reduction policies. 5. Action area 5: Reorient health services Reorienting health care is important in ensuring that health promotion is everybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s business. Re?orientating health services means that nurses have a pivotal role in fostering intersectoral collaboration between the health sector, police, education, adolescents and parents. There is some evidence to suggest that brief interventions can have some effect in reducing alcohol related harm among young people (Loxley et al 2004). However recent AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING Volume 25 Number 4 117 POINT OF VIEW overseas evidence suggests that in settings that are most commonly used by adolescents, many health practitioners are not comfortable and adequately skilled when working with young people (McPherson 2005). Working in partnership with other health care providers, nurses can encourage positive health practices where brief interventions that focus on harm reduction, can be provided from places where young people congregate (McMurray, 2003). Graham, M. , Ward, B. , Munro, G. , Snow, P. and Ellis, J. 2006. Rural parents, teenagers and alcohol: what are parents thinking? Rural and Remote Health, 6(online):383. Available from: http://www. rrh. org. au/publishedarticles/article_print_383. pdf (accessed May 2008). Grube, J. 1997. Preventing sales of alcohol to minors: results from a community trial. Addiction, 92(S2):S251?260. Hanson, B. , Larrson, S. and Rastam, L. 2000. Time trends in alcohol habits Ã¢â¬â results from the Kirseberg Project in Malmo, Sweden. Subst. Use Misuse. 35(1&2) 171? 187. Hingson, R. , Azkocs, R. , Herren, T. , Winter, M. , Rosenbloom, D. and DeJong, W. 2005. Effects on alcohol related fatal crashes of a community based initiative to increase substance abuse treatment and reduce alcohol availability. Injury Prevention, 11: 84? 90. Holder, H. , Saltz, R. , Grube, J. , Voas, R. , Gruenewald, P. and Treno, A. 1997. A community prevention trial to reduce alcohol? involved accidental injury and death: overview. Addiction, 92(S2):S155? 171. Howat, P. , Sleet, D. , Maycock, B. and Elder, R. 2007. Effectiveness of Health Promotion in Prevention Alcohol Related Harm, In: McQueen, DV. and Jones, CM. Global Perspectives on Health Promotion Effectiveness. Springer, New York. Jernigan, D. 2001. Global status report: alcohol and young people. World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland. Available from: http://libdoc. who. int/hq/2001/WHO_MSD_MSB_01. 1. pdf (accessed May 2008). Jones, S. and Donovan, R. 2001. Messages in alcohol advertising targeted to youth. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 25(2):126? 131. Loxley, W. , Toumbourou, J. and Stockwell, T. 2004. The prevention of substance use, risk and harm in Australia: a review of the evidence. Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra, Australia. Available from: http://www. health. gov. au/internet/wcms/publishing. nsf/ Content/health? pubhlth? publicat? document? mono_prevention? cnt. htm/$FILE/prevention_summary. pdf (accessed May 2008). Ludbrook, A. , Godfrey, C. , Wyness, L. , Parrot, S. , Haw, S. , Napper, M. and van Teijlingen, E. 2002. Effective and cost effective measures to reduce alcohol misuse in Scotland: a literature review. University of York: Aberdeen, Scotland. Available from: http:// www. scotland. gov. uk/health/alcoholproblems/docs/lire? 00. asp (accessed May 2008). McPherson, A. 2005. Adolescents in primary care. British Medical Journal, 330(26):465? 467. Midford, R. 2004. Community action to reduce alcohol problems: what should we try in Australia. Centrelines: Newsletter of the National Centres for Drug and Alcohol Research. Available from: http://espace. lis. curtin. edu. au/archive/00000502/01/ Pages_from_ndri012. pdf (accessed May 2008). Midford, R. , Munro, G. , McBride, M. , Snow, P.and Ladzinski, U. 2002. Principles that underpin effective school? based drug education. Journal of Drug Education, 32(4):363? 386. McMurray, A. 2003. Community Health and Wellness (2nd edn). Elsevier: Marrickville, NSW, Australia. National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). 2001. Australian Alcohol Guidelines. Canberra, Australia. Available from: http://www. nhmrc. gov. au/publications/synopses/ds9syn. htm (accessed May 2008). Nutbeam, D. 2005. What would the Ottawa Char ter look like if it were written today? Available from: http://www. rhpeo. org/reviews/2005/19/index.htm (accessed March 2007). CONCLUSION The development of evidence informed practice in nursing includes using robust health promotion models and methods to address complex issues suchasalcoholmisuse. Thefiveactionareasofthe Ottawa Charter integrate the various perspectives on health promotion. Used collectively, they still serve a useful function in directing the practice of nurses who work with young people, their families, and the community. REFERENCES Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy. 2006. National Alcohol Strategy 2006? 2009. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. Available from: http://www. alcohol. gov. au/internet/alcohol/ publishing. nsf/Content/nas? 06? 09 (accessed May 2008). Australian Government Department of Health and Aged Care, National Expert Advisory Committee on Alcohol. 2001. Alcohol in Australia: issues and strategies. A background paper to the National Alcohol Strategy: A Plan for Action 2001 to 2003/04. Canberra: Australia. Available from: http://www. health. gov. au/ internet/drugstrategy/publishing. nsf/Content/00701CF3C77 7718CCA2571790008D615/$File/alcohol_strategy_back. pdf (accessed May 2008). Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2008. 2007 National DrugStrategyHouseholdSurvey:firstresults. DrugStatisticsSeries No 20, cat. no. PHE 98. AIHW: Canberra, Australia. Available from: http://www. aihw. gov. au/publications/index. cfm/title/10579 (accessed May 2008). Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). 2006. AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s health 2006. AIHW cat. no. AUS73. Canberra, Australia. Available from: http://www. aihw. gov. au/publications/index. cfm/ title/10321#full_publication (accessed May 2008). Editor. 2008. Confronting the demon of under-age alcohol abuse. The Age, 12 March, p.16, Fairfax: Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Foxcroft, D. , Ireland, D. , Lister? Sharp, D. , Lowe, G. , and Breen, R. 2003. Primary prevention for alcohol misuse in young people, The Cochrane Library, Oxford: UK. AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING Volume 25 Number 4 118 POINT OF VIEW Parliament of Victoria (Australia). Drugs and Crime Prevention Committee. 2004. Inquiry into Strategies to Reduce Harmful Alcohol Consumption. Discussion Paper. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Available from: http://www. parliament. vic. gov. au/ dcpc/Reports/DCPC? DiscussionPaper_Alcohol_2004? 10? 21. pdf (accessed May 2008). Shanahan, P. and Hewitt, N. 1999. Developmental Research for a National Alcohol Campaign. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Health and Aged Care. Available from: http://www. alcohol. gov. au/internet/alcohol/publishing. nsf/Cont ent/3E8AC9F060C5D877CA257261000EC925/$File/alcocamp. pdf (accessed May 2008). Talbot, L. and Verrinder, G. 2005. Promoting health: the primary health care approach (3rd ed). Elsevier: Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Toumbourou, J. , Duff, C. and Bamberg, J. 2003. Family intervention in the prevention of drug? related harm. Prevention Research Evaluation Repor t, 7, 1? 14. Available from: http://www. druginfo. adf. org. au/downloads/Prevention_ Research_Quarterly/REP_No7_03Aug_Family_intervention. pdf (accessed May 2008). Toumbourou, J. , Moodie, R. , Eyre, J. and Harper, T. 2008. Set boundaries, set an example. The Age, 8 March, p. 5. Fairfax: Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Ward, B. , Snow, P. , Munro, G. , Graham, M. and Dickson? Swift, V. 2006. It starts with the parents and ends with the parents: the attitudes, knowledge and practices of metropolitan parents in relation to teenage alcohol use. Australasian College of Road Safety Journal, 17(3):20? 28. White, V. and Hayman, J. 2006. Australian secondary school studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ use of alcohol in 2005. The Cancer Council and the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Available from: http://www. health. gov. au/internet/drugstrategy/ publishing. nsf/Content/85D7B21B3E3A993ECA25722500077 55F/$File/mono58. pdf (accessed May 2008). World Health Organization (WHO). 2005. Global health promotion scaling up for 2015: a brief review of major impacts and developments over the past 20 years and challenges for 2015. Paper presented at the 6th Global Conference on Health Promotion, Bangkok, Thailand. Available from: http://www. who. int/healthpromotion/conferences/6gchp/hpr_conference_ background. pdf (accessed May 2008). World Health Organization 2005. WMA Statement on reducing the global impact of alcohol on health and society, World Medical Association, France. World Health Organization. 1986. Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Available at: http://www. who. int/hpr/NPH/docs/ ottawa_charter_hp. pdf (accessed May 2008). AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING Volume 25 Number 4 119.
Friday, August 30, 2019
What is Dota? Dota or Protection of the historical is a personalized scenario for the true-time strategy video video game Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos and it's growth, Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne, dependent on the Ã¢â¬Å"Aeon of StrifeÃ¢â¬ map for StarCraft. The objective of the scenario is for each crew to ruin the opponents' Ancients, heavily guarded structures at opposing corners of the map. Players use strong units recognized as heroes, and are assisted by allied heroes and AI-controlled fighters called Ã¢â¬Å"creepsÃ¢â¬ . As in purpose-playing games, people level up their hero and use gold to acquire tools for the duration of the mission.Does Dota truly have an effect on the youth nowadays? Does it support the youth right now? Or it corrupts the minds of the youth who are playing this video game? Allow us search at Dota's positive aspects and disadvantages. Dota will help the youth who are actively playing this sport to turn into mentally inform, cooperative, and strate gic. It also increases their knowledge in mathematics by computing the gold's, damages, magic and bodily reduction present in the gaming. In fact, Dota really helps the youth by enjoying this game. In the other hand, enjoying this game with out time conduite and priority can lead to irresponsibility.Beginning from their obligations, the youth spend far more time enjoying this video game fairly than doing their duties. Research had been forgotten, college students grew to become lazy, and relationships with the family members had been also impacted due to the fact of this video game. Enjoying this sport also triggers the player to lose his/her temper and values. Why? It simply since of the distinct languages employed during the game or what we called Ã¢â¬Å"Trash talksÃ¢â¬ . Trash talks such as foul languages can really eliminate their temper and values. As a end result, the both sides will battle from every singleÃ¢â¬ ¦
Survival is a key part of life in which humans have been attending to throughout our entire existence. As time progresses, technology and knowledge not only increases but also improves. Eventually, we develop to the point where our educational system has an important and crucial question where the students are asked to compare and contrast a life raft with emergency supplies in it, a moderately sized island, and Earth itself. The three subjects have a number of similarities and differences; however, some are obviously more important than others. Read Also:Ã Topics for a Compare and Contrast Essay There are quite a few similarities between a life raft, an island, and Earth, all of which are just as obvious as the differences. Each of the three can carry things in them. The Earth and an island hold many different things on their land, including us humans. A life raft can, and is meant to, hold things such as emergency supplies or people in it. More obviously, each of the three is in a solid state of matter. Also, each of them has its own gravitational pull or influence. Earth has its own gravitational pull; so naturally, things that are located on Earth are influenced and affected by gravity. Lastly, each of them (can) support life. Earth, itself, is supporting life for a huge number of organisms and beings at this very moment. An island supports not only a number of plants, but also some animals and other organisms as well. A life raft, or life boat, is meant to help people safely distance themselves from a larger ship or boat disaster. Because a life raft has emergency suppli es, it will support human life until they run out. With similarities, there are also differences within the life raft, island, and Earth. While Earth and the island is an ecosystem supporting a vast and diverse number of species and organisms, a life raft is merely just a lifeless boat. The island and Earth are also part of each other, while the life raft is more of an object that is used by humans. The island isÃ literally a part of Earth, they are one thing. However, the life raft is not a part of Earth; itÃ¢â¬â¢s more like a Third Party Program that is used along with the main server or program. This also leads to the fact that the life raft is man-made, rather than being organic like Earth or an island. Obviously, we humans did not create Earth. And in normal circumstances, humans also do not create islands. Comparing and contrasting a life raft with emergency supplies, a moderately sized island, and Earth is truly a random and odd thing to do. However, doing so would prove that everything has at least a similarity and difference. Where there is a similarity, there is also a difference. It could be an obvious and blatantly clear similarity or difference, or it could also be a well and critically thought comparison. In conclusion, the man-made life raft seems to be the center of difference and the background character of similarities.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Business Ethics Case Study - Essay Example Business ethics can be varied for different businesses. But it is important for a business to include good ethics. Further, the concerns of business ethics also encompass issues related to the Ã¢â¬Ësocial responsibilityÃ¢â¬â¢ of business. In this context, ethical theories and principles are relevant in terms of providing adequate insights to the managers on important matters of protecting the overall corporate environment. Ethical theories emphasize the primary objective of reaching ethically correct business decisions. In order to direct the organization to success and gain more competitive advantages, each ethical theory follows a common set of goals known as ethical principles. There are various ethical frameworks used in business that are discussed briefly in the following section. The requirement of an ethical framework is considered relevant for organizations since they are now a significant part of the society and culture. With the ongoing globalization movement in the corporate world, the concept of a multi-cultural workplace is a familiar thing for most organizations. As people from various cultures, societies, communities and working backgrounds assemble under one roof, the cases of unethical conducts, as well as other disapproved performances, are being reported on a more frequent level. The requirement of ethical frameworks is highly demanded in order to make important decisions on determining what is right and what is wrong, what is ethically acceptable or unacceptable for the employees as well as the organization. In other words, an ethical framework should be constituted on the basis of certain ethical values such as justice, responsibility, reasonableness, respect, and safety of workers. The ethical framework is effective in constructing a healthy and cooperative organizational culture.
Online courses - Essay Example not hold the same value as traditional degrees do, but this thesis will try to look at the other side of online degrees as having the same value as the conventional degrees. Online colleges, just like their conventional classroom colleges have to follow the laid down guidelines in offering their degree, online colleges just like conventional ones. They have to teach the mandatory units and subjects in a certain degree program, they have to follow the stipulated timelines and grading of the students must be done at regular intervals in a similar way the conventional colleges do (Koontz, Li and Compora 38). In online degree programs, the subjects are taught by a teacher and not a programmed robot as some think, class notes are sent by the teacher to the students through email. The teacher interact with his students online through various ways such as online video chats and message boards, the tests are done online and they are graded by an actual teacher. In a survey conducted to determine the perception of employers toward online degrees, in 2001 only twenty-nine per cent of employers said they would not hire students with online degrees. The rest seventy-one percent said they did not mind the whether the degree was conventional or online as long it was from an accredited institution of learning and the employee had acquired the relevant skills. Some employers are now preferring online degree holder to the conventional degree holders as the online degree holders are perceived to have certain characteristics such self starters, they have self discipline and are able to meet deadlines. In the workforce, online degrees are valued as a great asset since they show the holder was creative enough to be able to complete the programme online successfully (Palloff, Pratt and Palloff 18). A research conducted by the United States department of education in 2009 found that the students who did online degrees performed much better than those who went to the conventional
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Describe a football game - Essay Example So the last game was to determine who would win the title. Manchester City was on top of the league table position because of the goal advantage though; to become a champion of England only one thing was left to do. Manchester City had to earn more points in the last game of the season against the club from London than its rival, Manchester United; only this way the City would finally win the title. In other words, Manchester City fans couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t demand anything less but the victory and three points, which had to secure the title for their club. The game started at 1:45 pm UTC sharp. Etihad Stadium was full with the City fans carrying Manchester City flags with bold letters written on them: Ã¢â¬Å"LOUD, PROUD, And LOYALÃ¢â¬ (Steinberg, n.p.). Everybody seemed to know the importance of that game; even the players themselves appeared keen and energetic as they marched from the dressing room to the pitch, while all the City fans were rising up in celebration. The Etihad Stadium was full of joyous noise as each City fan was celebrating the success of the team, which everybody was sure about. When the referee Mike Dean blew his whistle to indicate the start of the game, every Manchester City fan rose up; what followed was a deafening noise as the fans tried to show their support to the selected eleven men on the pitch who were to carry on their backs the great responsibility for the success of the club, which had not won the Premier League title for many years. The game started on a high note as each team was trying to score a goal. The importance of this game and its result would have an immense effect on both teams. The feelings and emotions of the players were high as each team tried to secure the needed result from the game. Meantime, twenty minutes of the game passed: Manchester United scored in their game against Fulham. Etihad Stadium went mute as fans knew that if the City happened to lose or draw, then the United win would help them take the league title again. Faces of players on the bench could be compared to that of a crying baby wanting her mother to come over and pick him up. 38 minutes passed: Manchester City broke the deadlock with Zableta scoring a supremely amazing goal from a close range. At that moment, the stadium went wild, with the City fans holding each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s arms and singing the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s anthem in unison. Someone could mistake Manchester City coach for a teenager as he was jumping all over the field celebrating. Manchester City fans were holding and hugging each other and someone could mistake it for a world hugging day. This did not last long as QPR responded with an exceptionally stunning goal from Cisse. The few QPR fans at Etihad ran wild. Their little number could not be compared with the wild noise they made in their celebration. The other corner, City fans, was so quiet that one could think the world was coming to an end. At half time the result remained 1-1. This appeared to make the City coach insane as he kicked every water bottle around him while heading to the dressing room (Steinberg, n.p.). After half time, the City fans though being shocked with the result seemed to encourage their players whatever it took. They kept singing the club anthem, which they did while holding each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s arms when the City scored first. Their celebration got a blow at 68th minute, when QPR scored another super goal. At this instance, both the City technical team and fans appeared to be shocked. Every City fan was quite, and their wrinkled faces spoke for them even more
Case Study on Organizational Behaviour and Analysis - Essay Example Case Study on Organizational Behaviour and Analysis This is a testimony of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s positive organisational behaviour strategies, designed to retain employees and customers on a long term basis. The founder and present CEO, Howard Schultz has been pivotal in steering the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s organisational behavioural systems over several years. Having nurtured and guided the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s fortunes in its formative years, his return as CEO marks a new era in organisational success of the company. Initially, he was keen on opening new stores all over the country for which funds were required. He arranged for floating a $25 Million Initial Public Offering (IPO) during 1992, which provided necessary funds for his expansion plans to make Starbucks coffee drinking a part of a world wide accepted culture. However, over the years, impact of market forces led to downward trends in the business fortunes of Starbucks, and with receding markets and lowered profits, organisational remodelling, especially at the top level, was needed to solve the vexing issues that confronted the company and also provide sound and substantive leadership. It was also to provide organisational and managerial decision making processes, based on experiences to face competitive incursions into its business. Schultz provided organisational restructure when he decided to close down 100 underperforming stores and reduce opening of new stores to just 1,175 during the year, lower by 34% as compared to earlier figures. (Starbucks: Maintaining Principles as We Grow, p.16).
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Approaches to Standard Setting in Accounting - Essay Example The body also cited the reasons at which it was setting these accounting settings and some of them included; to give users of accounting information about their financial situation, their financial performance, and the financial conduct of a firm (LeRoy, 2007). Another reason was to assist public accountants with steps to enable them perform their work with care in offering their services in the accounting market. These standards were set so that all financial statements were consistent and had the ability to describe their financial performance. These accounting standards can also be known as Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), they are generally accepted because there is an authoritative accounting body that set them and the body oversees the implementation of these standards. Without these standards the consumers of financial statements would need to learn accounting rules of different firms, this would be a difficult task for multi investors to compare these financia l statement accounting rules. Some of the bodies that regulate these accounting standards are the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). This body was formed to establish these accounting standards for the public traded firms. ... Then the financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) was created after the wheat committee suggested the replacement of the GAAP board with new standards. After the dissolving the FASB board a new board International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) was formed in 1973. This board was created to encourage a worldwide implementation of the accounting standards. This board was succeeded by a private sector body that was structured in a similar way as FASB (Sharpe, 1982). The accounting standards and regulations are very important. This is because they regulate accounting assumptions and methods. They also enable us to have consistency in the methods that are used to organize companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial statements. Although there are differences within these regulations, reliable conclusions can be deduced when comparing firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ financial data for specific industries. If there were no accounting standards then the people who use financial statements like investors, banks and ot her institutions would require learning these accounting rules in a different manner for each firm. The accounting standards instill relevance to day to day accounting procedures and processes; this results into better financial performance from firms and represents faithfulness and accuracy (Sharpe, 1982). These standards ensure that neutral information is used hence eliminating the possibility of biasness in the financial statements. They give relevant information by enabling investors to know their specific points of investments to make. They save a lot of time since they give or point out clarity in the financial statements. The growth of financial transactions is making the compliance with accounting standards become an issue which require addressing immediately
North Street Primary School Upgrade Proposal - Essay Example North Street Junior School is facing the similar problem thus it needs few amendments to cure the problems related to the greenhouse emission and the energy consumption. The school utilizes the artificial lights to enlighten the inner building and utilize maintain the temperature by utilizing the electricity. All the classrooms have radiators that help maintain the temperature during all seasons. In general, the building of the school is an old patterned building that utilizes the immense amount of energy for all the systems. In my view, the building was such made to restrict the outer air from being penetrated into the building but due to the lack of technology, it also restricted the natural lights from penetrating into the building that is the major reason for its higher energy consumption. On the other hand, the utilization of the fossil fuel and electricity based temperature controlled system also consumes a major portion of the electrical energy increasing the number of carbon footprints. At some place lack of insulation permits the inner atmosphere to diffuse into the outer environment making the temperature control unit to work more than requ ired. The School is surrounded by smaller building, thus allowing a lot of light to be faced by the building (Cayless, & Marsden, 1997, p45-122). The immense amount of light may serve as to enlighten the building and to provide warm water and air to be circulated into the school. However, the dominant feature of the building is that the building is a symbol of cultural heritage and it should be touched little but implementing effective alteration in the building to consume lower energy units and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the solar water heaters should be placed over the roofs of the building to capture the solar energy and heat the water.
Monday, August 26, 2019
The Just Culture Model on Patient Safety - Research Paper Example This is called the punitive approach model. It shuts off the necessary information required to identify the fault in the system and create safer systems. In such a system people do not learn from their mistakes. Discussion of need/purpose for A Just Culture Model for Patient Safety To improve the quality of overall health care system, there is a need to improve on the culture of safety within the health care. This is an essential component when it comes to reducing errors. A just culture can thus be said to be one that is supportive of shared accountability. It holds the organization responsible for systems that it has chosen to design and for how they choose to respond to the behavior of staff in a just and fair manner (Manasse et al, 2005). For their part, the staff are the ones who are accountable for the quality of the choices that they make and for the reporting of the errors they make and the vulnerabilities of the system. This paper aims at discussing the concept of the just m odel and its application in the health system cultures (Manasse et al, 2005). ... These components include, Empirical Outcomes, Transformational Leadership, Exemplary Professional Practice Empowerment, Innovations and Improvements, New Knowledge and Structural Just Culture (Manasse et al, 2005). Ã¢â¬Å"Just CultureÃ¢â¬ is not discussed in this context; however, it is in tandem with the case model. In reference to transformational leadership, it fronts for advocacy as an attribute of patients as well as leaders in nursing. In terms of Professional Engagement, imminent evidence in this case is that which would promote organizational leadership as part of nursing (Technology, 2012). Objective(s) The major focus of just culture is to increase the safety of patients; this is done through effective reporting, modification of the system, accountability and remediation. The objectives of the just culture are to increase the number of medical personnel, who report information regarding medical malpractice, increase remediation that is sponsored by the employer to incorp orate the culture in the review of complaints regarding malpractice, create a patient safety database for the whole state, assist in the development of the national safety database and increase use of practice intervention and improvement program, which is an alternative to the discipline program (Reiling, 2007). The main objective of the just culture is to establish a mindset that is organization-wide which will positively influence the workplace environment and the work outcome in many ways. This concept promotes culture where mistakes and errors in the workplace do not result in automatic punishment but a process from which the source of the error can be established. The objective of this culture is promoting an
Should college athletes be paid to play - Research Paper Example Yet again, not all students are interested in playing sports as a side activity. Consequently, apart from their initially decided terms of a sports scholarship, they often get little part in the revenue these sports generate for their school. Critics and coaches are, therefore, now arguing in favor of these players saying that they deserve a share of the revenue, as they for the most part contribute towards generating. The debate is a highly heated one with each side feeling just as strongly of their opinion. The number of college athletes in a particular college can be very significant and all these athletes have a choice of which sport they want to take part at the college level. Some sports may have a high popularity level while others low. Deciding upon paying athletes for playing may compel the college to pay all the athletes for all the different kinds of sports in the college. This may result in heavy payments at the end of the day and it may also reduce the profits earned by the colleges at a massive level. Those who argue in favor of paying athletes generally say that colleges make millions of dollars off these athletes abilities and, therefore, for them to get no money from it is unfair, and, in a sense, exploitation to them (Haden 673). Without these players there would be no generated money, and without this money, many colleges would be unable to function. Colleges gain popularity at the sports arena due to the talented athletes that represent the college in the sports. Earning by the talent of the athletes and not paying those athletes sounds an unfair practice. Accordingly, it seems fair to pay to these players, just as any national sports association would pay its players. But, of course, the counter-argument to this claim is that students should be kept away from the business side of a college, regardless of the link between both elements (Parent 226). College level is the stage where the students explore their talents and
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Exam questions - Coursework Example There are different types of financial systems without which simple transactions such as trading and investment are thought to be impossible. The financial systems in different societies include those that operate locally or regionally and those that control company transactions internationally(Mike & John, 2004). The financial system pull together, maintain and give a detailed report on economic transactions. Financial systems support the relationship between internal and external financial transactions and financial reporting. They also play a role in helping manage, plan and budget finances available. Financial systems play a role in the allocation and distribution of resources, mainly by directing household savings to the corporate sector and investments among firms. This allows the smooth flow of goods and services between households and firms. Well-structuredfinancial systems are necessary for economic and financial stability in a state of increased working capital. The lack of a financial lead to major changes because there would be no access to components such as credit, no monetary value for exchange of goods and services hence becoming a major barrier to economic transactions. Weak financial systems are inadequate and they create issues such as inflation and debts. They are also faced by the threat of fraudulent manipulation by malicious people and above all may lead to a serious financial crisis. A financial center is a market or city that meets the major part of the demand for financial services of both domestic and international market and it is a key component of a financial system. Most developed countries have a major financial center for example in Europe; London, Paris, Frankfurt in the United States the financial center is based in the New York. Such financial centers are facing competitions hence most of them are unstable(Berger & David, 1997). There is
The supply chain management failure of Boeing787 - Research Paper Example The Boeing 787, a revolutionary aircraft, is a product of such operations as the Boeing Company decided to increase their value by creating the Dreamliner to counter some of the cost-reducing airline companies (Crown, 2008). However, the 787 Dreamliner has been marred with problems, and engineers believe that these problems emanate from their outsourcing operations. This paper will examine the failure of the supply chain of the 787 Dreamliner, and find out what was done to avert the complete collapse of the DreamlinerÃ¢â¬â¢s rise. Increase in competition among the airline companies present has forced companies to look for alternative means to increase their revenue. The Boeing Company is no exception. Upon realization that it would be harder to maintain its top position in the aviation industry, the company chose between two strategies that would ensure its survival and growth in the market. Between reducing the cost and selling price of their aircraft and developing a new one in order to increase its revenue through value creation in the airline industry, Boeing chose to go with the latter. Through the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, the company would be in a position to give their customers a travel experience unlike any other. Its design was meant to ensure that long-haul flights were possible without the layovers that usually characterize such flights (Norris et al., 2005). This would have been perfect for their international customers. Furthermore, operational efficiency would ensure that passengers would be provided with nonstop economical flights in between cities, which would ensure low costs, and an increase in customer demand. As the benefits of the Dreamliner became evident, the unexpected number of orders from the airline industry took the company by surprise. As a global aircraft manufacturer, Boeing did not want to disappoint. In late 2007, however, the company decided to announce delays in the development of the Dreamliner. The news was received
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Critically analyse and evaluate (Human resources) - Essay Example This fact appears to contradict the real significance of this department as evident in many business organizations. Human resource functions and decisions ought to drive positive performance gains in terms of personal efficiency and financial gains (Becker & Gerhart, 1996:782). The procedures by which HR functions and decisions develop sustainable value are intricate and difficult to fully comprehend. Instruments such as the resource based view are critical in evaluation of HR significance. Resources which are uncommon, unique and valuable can offer sources of sustainable competitive edge. Many people have argued that, HR practices no matter the uniqueness can not be fully relied on to offer a competitive advantage since they can be copied. Nevertheless, a point noteworthy is that effective human capital has the capacity to contribute largely to the development of a sustainable competitive advantage (Wright, Dunford, & Snell, 2001:704). Professionally crafted strategies which are deeply entrenched within an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s structure are not easy to imitate. This is because, it is not easy to fully comprehend the real approaches through which interaction between HR practices and procedures accrue value. Without the capacity to understand the interacti ons between elements of an intricate system, it is just impossible to imitate it. The resource based view remains to be considered a fundamental factor contributing to the intangible and hypothetical development of human resource study (Kirsch, 2007:3). Despite the contradicting perceptions regarding HR practices and function, the truth is that organizations that invest on innovativeness and unique HR practices will always testify to its benefits as both of these articles
Final - Research Paper Example They give businesses a real time view of how they can improve their operations and operate more profitably. The comments by customers are used to detect any issues that the customers may have with the products of the company. The customers are also able to get an immediate feedback on the queries that they might raise. The role of social media therefore is more significant in the business world. Businesses use social media mainly in marketing their products, creating awareness to both the potential and existing customers (Michaelidou, Siamagka, and Christodoulides 1154). They are therefore able to increase sales as a result and therefore increasing their profitability. Social media therefore has attained a role in shaping the life of people as well as that of businesses. It has enabled people to interact socially with others and has enabled businesses to attain their profitability goals. It has also shaped the life of businesses by improving communication in organization between vari ous groups of employees (Atur and Huberman 494). The commonly used forms of social media are Facebook, Twitter and Google+. Facebook was initially commonly used by college students and the young people to connect socially with their friends. The role of Facebook has however increased as businesses are now using it to carry out their marketing function by creating a Facebook page where the Facebook users can follow and get any updates from the company or raise their queries and comments. Twitter also started as a tool for basically social networking but with time, businesses have adopted its use in marketing their products, releasing important information to their customers and directing attention for new products and special offers in the market (Bosari Para 4). Google+ has also been adopted by many businesses in carrying out their marketing and through it, the businesses have found the ease of increasing their presence in the business social
Nursing as Defined by Nightingale - Essay Example Women during my time could not go outright and do what they want. Their role is to marry and manage the household. Sidney Herbert, a man close to my heart, knew of my desire to do something more than just be a wife. He respected my choice and has been my friend ever since. For choosing a different path, I have been called an activist. And, because of this choice I had to live most of my life away from my family. My mother was very vocal that she was against what I was doing. Despite this, I persisted. My commitment to the task was growing as I worked everyday to help people to get well. But commitment and will without preparing oneself for the task would amount to nothing. This is the reason why I used the donations I obtained from the war survivors, soldiers and their families, to open the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s first school for nurses: The Nightingale School for Nurses at St. ThomasÃ¢â¬â¢s Hospital in London (Morgan, 1992). It was also at this time that my Ã¢â¬Å"Notes on NursingÃ¢â¬ was published. It became popular as a compilation of rules on practical nursing and hygiene (Harmelick, 1969). For me, these notes were not rules, but: Ã¢â¬Å"The following notes are by no means intended as a rule of thought by which nurses can teach themselves to nurse, still less as a manual to teach nurses to nurse. They are meant simply to give hints for thought to women who have personal charge of the health of others.Ã¢â¬ (Nightingale, 1860) Ã¢â¬Å"It ought to signify the proper use of fresh air, light, warmth, cleanliness, quiet, and the proper selection and administration of dietÃ¢â¬âall at the least expense of vital power to the patientÃ¢â¬ (Nightingale, 1860) Basically, the issues that I wanted to answer in this book dealt with: Ã¢â¬Å"the proper use of fresh air, light, warmth, cleanliness, quiet, and the proper selection and administration of dietÃ¢â¬ (Nightingale, 1860). According to Mr. Selanders these can be combined to form three central
The Cold War and U.S Diplomacy - Research Paper Example The Soviet Union created the Eastern Bloc which comprised of the eastern European countries. The US aided the western European countries for post war recovery and later formed NATO to contain communism. The two powers never had direct military action, but the period contained sets of high tension crisis and race for supremacy. Different doctrines were followed over time to contain spread of communism. The 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan led to worst patch of relationship between the two. Strait of Hormuz forms a bottleneck at the Persian Gulf, therefore, a strategic position to control the oil flow from the region (Rodrigue, 2004). The Afghanistan invasion brought Soviet Union in close proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, which could have been accessed through invasion of Iran. Soviet actions posed threat to the stability of the entire region. US along with other countries were dependant on the oil for functioning of their economies. The supply was also crucial for the military to maintain its operational capabilities. Saudi Arabia, therefore, was assured of security by US from communist adversaries. Iran was a key ally in the region to guard against spread of communism. Iran and Saudi Arabia were given aid to counter Soviet Union and ensure stability in the region. The Iranian revolution in 1979 complicated the situation; therefore, a new doctrine had to be formulated. The exclusion of Iran demanded a doctrine to present suitable threat to guard against spread of Soviets in the region and to find reliable replacement for supply of oil to US. President CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s doctrine was a paradigm shift from previous doctrines of President Truman, Eisenhower and Nixon. It was aimed to make clear the importance of the Persian Gulf as key vital interest. The doctrine made clear that any effort by hostile power to block the flow of oil from the Persian Gulf would be considered an attack on US vital interest and would be dealt with military force. It was a direct warni ng to the Soviet Union to stay out of the region (Stork, 1980). The doctrine also demanded close cooperation of surrounding countries in the region to support against this security threat. Implementation Rapid Deployment Force The US did not have significant military presence in the region at the time of Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The US was dependant mainly on the NATO, which were conventional strategic forces and needed time to start its operation. President Carter formed Rapid Deployment Force, which was aimed to respond to international crisis immediately. The force consisted of five Army divisions and was stationed near the Persian Gulf. Elements of all four arms i.e. Army, Air Force, Navy and Marine were incorporated in the organization of the force. The major aim was to create deterrence for the Soviet Union against possible intervention in the region and to ensure continuation of the oil flow from the Persian Gulf (Noel, 2006). The force was mobile and did not require f orward military bases as compared to NATO deployment. Nuclear Policy Nuclear weapons were used as deterrence as well but its policy kept changing over time. The Carter Administration outlined the US policy for use of nuclear weapons. The new policy stressed that US must remain prepared to fight a protracted nuclear war (Siracusa & Coleman, 2001). Nuclear deterrence was used before Carter, but its new policy was aimed at backing
Friday, August 23, 2019
An Inconveniente truth - Essay Example Ice melting has a huge impact on nature and the humanity. If we pay attention on the fact that Gore presents, we will see that the giant ice shelves retreat every year, for example from Mount Kilimanjaro, Columbia glaciers and so on. The amount of CO2 is extremely rising nowadays, despite during 650000 years it did not raise above 300 ppm. So, Gore states, the overall trend of warming is clear and intensified. 2005 year, for example, has brought the record point of temperature of the 14 years for more than 200 countries all over the world. Gore proves that the ocean temperature rises, which causes the stronger storms and hurricanes, which America and Japan felt on their own skin. The ecosystem of river is also suffering. The effects of human`s activity are of a planetary importance. As our planet is like a big engine, flora and fauna are suffering from the climate changing, for example, polar bears and pine trees. It was noticed that the giant ice missives become sicker (for 40% of 4 0 years). It has caused not only environmental problems, but also an appearance of new illnesses (more than 30 new diseases, including SARS) distributed of intensified insects, rising to the top of mountains. The other related problem is the flooding, which can happen if the big body of ice land melts. It would become a great disaster for coastal territories, for example, the large part of Florida, Shanghai, Calcutta, Manhattan and so on will be covered with water. The technical revolution has posed the humanity on the edge of disaster; it is time pay for the mistakes. As we can notice, Gore widely discovers the truth of the problem, showing it is not imaginative. However, he is optimistic Ã¢â¬â his opinion is that humanity has both ability and will to secure its future, to pay attention on what is used (thing, cars and so on) and how it can be
Interpretation of the Bible. How the critical reading of John assists in the interpretation of the gospel - Essay Example The book presents an account of the ministries of Jesus in the public1. The book opens with witnesses and affirmation of John the Baptist and it concludes with the crucifixion, burial, and resurrection of Jesus. The book follows the three synoptic including Mathew, Mark and Luke. Reading the gospel of John therefore, aids in the interpretation of the Gospel because of the information or rather the summary it relays and the various factors that the author put into consideration. II. Interpretation of the bible Interpretation of the bible can be done on the major purpose of the gospel. The book on its entirety can be interpreted on what the author wanted to pass to the audience2. Reading the book, it demonstrates that the author wanted people to believe in Jesus Christ to be able to have life, salvation and eternal life. The book recounts many of the miracles that Jesus did and how he overcame death. These accounts demonstrates clearly to the believers and non-believers that indeed, th ere is God and therefore, by trusting in His name, we are assured of eternal life. John through the book aspires to reach out to the believer and his intention is to strengthen their faith in the gospel3. Going through the book, it is evident that Jesus performed all his miracles in the presence of his disciples. He wanted them to bear witness that indeed he had the power to perform miracles as directed by the Almighty Father in Heaven. John in John 2:11, mentions the effect of first sign.4 Furthermore, there are various omissions that John omits in his book probably because of the fact that some of the issues are covered in the synoptic gospels. Therefore, much information on the background of the narratives is omitted in the book. Omissions include various events and characters that happened in the New Testament and the life of Jesus Christ. The gospelÃ¢â¬â¢s last chapters themes from John 13-17, may not have any impact to the nonbelievers5. These chapters talk about Jesus final instructions to his disciplines, his priestly prayers and the last super that he shared with his disciplines. Non-believers may not be encouraged and motivated to change their beliefs based on these chapters. Going through John 20:31, John evangelizes the gospel of Christ through very strong words6. He tells the readers that it is written that Jesus Christ is the son of God and therefore, whoever that believes in him will have eternal life. This is a very strong message that John is passing to the readers. The verse, send a very strong message to the nonbelievers as well as believers to accept salvation to be able to inherit the kingdom of God. Reading John helps us to understand the gospel as well as other three books of the gospel. The book continued to put emphasis on witnessing and this is illustrated through various episodes such as the Samaritan at the well and John the Baptist7. Therefore, the book helps the readers both the unbelievers and believers to have and strengthen t heir faiths. There is enough evidence that is provided about the deity of Jesus through the claims of Jesus as well as many miracles that Jesus did during his life. The synoptic gospels; Mathew, mark and Luke, have also addressed some of the issues or events that are presented in John but the way they are presented in John is precise and concise hence fostering easy understanding8. John selects specific material, which he uses to fulfill his themes and purpose, and this has made the gospel to be clear and
Thursday, August 22, 2019
A Separate Peace By John Knowles Essay In A Separate Peace by John Knowles, it is evident that Finny and Leper undergo the most traumatic experiences from the Class of 1943. Through these experiences, both characters lose much of their innocence and naivety. Finny, upon learning of the existence of the war and Genes moment of hatred, learns to accept realities and perceive the world as it is, not as the perfect childlike image he wants it to be. However, when Leper enlists in the army, he quickly begins to have hallucinations because the reality is too much for him to handle. Nevertheless, he eventually overcomes his insanity and seems to be fairly mentally stable by the end of the novel. Although Finny and Lepers traumas are the source of a major loss of purity and childhood, they are also the cause of post-tramautic growth and a necessary increase in maturity. Finny goes through several perception-changing events during the course of the novel, but the event that cements his departure from childhood is the acceptance that Gene deliberately shook Finny off the tree. This shock was caused by his own inability to accept the truth in the first place. Despite the ease of denying unwanted information and living in a dream world, it is mentally unhealthy for Finny because of the shock caused upon finally believing the truth. Immediately after Genes confession of jouncing the limb, Gene remarks that Finny looked older than I had ever seen him (62). Finny, however, does not yet comprehend feelings of jealousy and betrayal, as he has hardly had any himself and finds it difficult to think of anothers point of view; the information registers on his face, but before he has time to process it and mature he rejects the idea entirely. Gene states it occurred to me that this could be an even deeper injury than what I had done before (62). The reality of adult themes such as jealousy, betrayal, and hate is what hurts Finny most, not the crippling injury itself. Another reality that takes away from Finnys nescience is the war (when he finally believes in its existence). The most dramatic and stunning war in recent history, World War II had a huge impact on millions of lives worldwide. Yet Phineas refused to believe in the war, and instead created a fantasy in which he was the one of the only people who knew that it was all a hoax. When Gene, in disbelief from Finnys opinion, questions Finny on why he is the only person who is aware of the stuffed shirts' (107) plot toÃ suppress happiness, Finny emotionally bursts out it is because he has suffered (108). Apparently, Finny has visualized this hoax to shield himself from the disadvantages of his disability, such as enlisting. Nevertheless, Finny quickly accepts the truth of the war after seeing Leper in a mentally disturbed state of mind. The image of what the war did to someone who used to be close to him shook him out of his dream world and spurred his emotional growth. When Finny, at the end of the novel, learned to accept the realities and avoid using denial to cope with shock, he lost the last of his childhood innocence. Leper is easily one of the most naive and innocent characters during the Summer Session. His good-naturedness and passive fascination with nature is such an ideal image of innocence that it seems almost depressing to see him in the traumatized state of mind after enlisting. Even while everyone is volunteering to shovel snow to aid the war effort and discussing their plans for which division to enlist in, Leper is only concerned with the beauty of nature and skis to a beaver dam to watch the beavers develop and build their dam. He is moved to join the army not for vain images of glory and glamor like the other students, but rather for the beauty of skiing down a mountain. Obviously, he soon finds that the army is too much for him, and while absent from the ongoings at Devon he loses every shred of innocence and guilelessness that previously surrounded his character. When Gene meets him, his psyche is obviously changed to such a point that he has hallucinations and other symptoms of sc hizophrenia, caused by his rapid ascension into adult matters. He does not accept reality nearly as well as Finny does because his character was far more innocuous at the start of the novel. So many of his images of the world are shattered that it can be seen that he feels like he has little familiarity to hold onto. He grasps to every gleam of regularity and unchangeable function, which explains his preference for spending time in the dining room of his house simply because he knows that three daily meals will be served there on a consistent basis. However, his time at home seems to have given him time to cope with the images of adulthood. Upon his return to Devon, he seems mentally well and a much more decisive authority than ever before. He accurately and forcefully convicts Gene of jouncing the limb in his new, confident voice (166).Ã Gene describes Leper during the trial as all energy (165). Evidently, Leper has dealt with the loss of innocence caused by his abrupt initiation into adulthood and has become a more confident, self-assured pe rson in spite of it. Knowles makes it apparent throughout A Separate Peace that while the loss of innocence may often seem to be a sad or tragic event, it is necessary to pave the way for maturation and a transition into adulthood. Had Finny never accepted the truth of the tragedy that occurred to him, he would have never matured beyond his carefree summer days. And had Leper kept living in his own world of vivid imaginations, he would have never developed into the sanguine individual he becomes at the end of the novel. While the loss of innocence is partly a lugubrious experience, John Knowles portrays it as a necessity a part of maturation and growth that leads to adulthood and self-fulfillment.
Valu of Time Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Yesterday is history. Tomorrow is a mystery. Today is a gift. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why its called the presentÃ¢â¬ . Gifts of God to Human being. Yesterday is a canceled check; tomorrow is a promissory note; today is the only cash you have so spend it wiselyÃ¢â¬ . Time is like an ice cream -use it before it melts. Time is very important in our life; it helps us to plan our daily lives and activities, so that we can live more organized, productive lives. We all are just dependent on time. With out time we are nothing. Time applies in our every walk of life. From womb to tomb life is a journey in the lap of time. Time never wait for any one. We have to move with the time. Everybody has 24 hours in whole day. Its our duty to manage the whole time. If we are not managing our time table or working in a proper schedule, we will face the problem in the end. So time management is very important. Luck always knocks the door of that person who realizes the value of time. Try to be punctual in every thing. Ordinary people think merely of spending time. Great people think of using it. God has created this world for a reason and if we closely observe the nature, we would find plenty of things that come on time. The sun, moon, stars and planets continue their motion in specific orbits and in fixed times. Sun rises from east at fixed time on every day and then sets in the west. Similarly a child is born in this world and dies at its time. If we follow the principles of God we will be successful. The time is the most important factor of all. If we abide by it, we can never be penalized. Take an example of our daily life. Our whole day activity if performed at time will be fruitful and results will be magnificent. Our name will be called in the School Annual Function Day. We must attend our school, in time to make the most out of it. If we take our breakfast, lunch and dinner in time, we shall have good health. If you reach your goal in time, you will be rewarded. If you sleep and get up in time, it will enhance your ability to work effectively. Your punctuality is the key of your success. The person who follows the principles of nature does always feel satisfied, content and above all victorious. Time is a key of success. If you do not give the importance of time than time will not importance to you. Time is something we do not realise when it is with us but when we realise it is very late as it has fled away. Time is too slow for those who wait, too swift for those who fear, too long for those who grieve, too short for those who rejoice, but for those who love, time is eternity. Ã¢â¬ Time waits for none and time once lost cannot be re-created so it is important for everyone to make the best use of the present time. What we do today, determines where we will stand tomorrow and the person who makes the best use of time today gets the best of life in the future. Time has created kings as well as beggars. Riches turn into rags and rags to riches over a matter of time. Every wok that we do requires time and time cannot be negotiated or replaced. The best use of time will most likely give you the best in life. Realizing the value of time is perhaps one of the primary things which all successful people in the world stress on. They know how important contribution the right use of time has attributed to their success in life. You know what is the difference between Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, Bill Gates, Kalpana Chawla, Sunita William, Indira Gandhi, Mother Teresa with any common people; why they made a great achievement in their life while some of others make average. The answer is time; those great people know the importance of time management for their life achievement. Time is the school in which we learn, time is the fire in which we burn. Time is important because Time is limited. The time can not be stopped. The time is irreversible. The time is abstract. You should know the importance of time management since time is the resource that you cannot see, you can not hear, you cannot touch, you can not store it in a place nor you can secure it as you wish. But its existence is real, have no time means you do not have life. The time is precious. The time is a gift from god to every one free. That is why; many people did not realize its preciousness for their life until they missed many precious things in their life due to lack of time. Time = life; therefore, waste your time and waste of your life, or master your time and master your life. Lost wealth may be replaced by industry, lost knowledge by study, lost health by medicine, but lost time is gone forever. When a work is delayed, definitely somewhere time is wasted. Time once lost is lost forever. Many cases of poverty which are due to lost opportunities and deferred tasks. Sometimes we have to pay a heavy price for the time we wasted. For example delay in the treatment of a disease may lead to something very serious. The student who keeps postponing his studies will regret at the eleventh hour. Rather than burning the midnight oil, we must make proper use of the time. Slow and steady wins the race, Story of Tortoise and Hare is known to every body. It will avoid mental strain during exam time. There a few similar proverbs which indicate the value of time such as Ã¢â¬Å"make hay while the sun shinesÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"strike when the iron is hotÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"a stitch in time saves nineÃ¢â¬ . Take care of the minutes and the hours will take care of themselves. It is always said never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. If man takes care of his minutes then the hours and days will take care of themselves. Time is more precious than money. Time is universal and eternal. We all grow in time, live in time and ultimately perish in time. Time may not be defined exactly, but we all know what it is and how valuable. We all want fame, success, happiness, and prosperity but only a few are able to achieve this because only they make the best use of their time. Time and tide wait for none. They cannot be commanded. They are to be used in the best possible manner. We should be prepared to make the best use of an opportunity when offered. Time once lost can never be recovered. Ã¢â¬Å"Trust no Future, howÃ¢â¬â¢re pleasant! Let the dead Past bury its dead! Act, act in the living Present! Heart within and God overhead! Ã¢â¬ Be like the clock. Always keep on ticking by involving yourself in various things and learning new things. These small knowledge and experience modules will perhaps one day take us to our bigger goal. Make use of time for positive, social, innovative work. Live for others as Ã¢â¬Å"they alone live who live for others, rests are dead than alive. Ã¢â¬ They say Time and Tide waits for no man. If so, now stop brooding over past and utilize your time effectively! Take the time to work, for it is the price of success. Take the time to think, it is the source of strength. Take the time to play, it is the secret of youth. Take the time to read, it is the seed of wisdom. Take the time to be friendly, for it brings happiness. Take the time to dream, for it will carry you to the stars. Take the time to love; it is the joy of life. Take the time to be content, it is the music of the soul. Prepared By Ã¢â¬âPrarthana Das IX A, Sacred Heart School, Jamshedpur..
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Different types of tourism destinations Introduction This report is going to look at the key appeal factors of France, USA, Spain and China. It will identify different types of tourism destinations and look at arrivals statistics to these countries. According to UNWTO (2008) in the Worlds Top Tourism Destinations 2008 first four places by international tourism arrivals were occupied by France, Spain, USA and China. First of all this report will identify the meaning of travel destination and tourist destination. A travel destination is the end point of the journey (Marvell and Hayward 2005). People travel to a destination for a variety of reasons, including holidays, business and visiting friends and relatives. A tourist destination combines travel with facilities and attractions that appeal to tourists (Marvell and Hayward 2005). There are many different types of tourist destinations; however this report will discuss coastal, urban and rural tourism and give examples of places that appeal to the destination. Main part Coastal tourism Coastal destination usually associated with the image of seaside resort. Holloway (2006) pointed that it is the most popular appeal of a destination. The attractiveness of the seaside resort is the combination of sun, sea and sand. Page et al. (2001) stated that it remains one of the most significant types of holiday in the world. The Spanish Costas are found along the southern coastline, on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea. Spain has many resort areas: Costa Blanca, Costa Almeria and Costa del Sol. While some of the Costa names may not be familiar, the resort of Benidorm is well known. Benidorm is the most popular resort in the Costa Blanca. According to Dale et al. (2006) resort attracts approximately five million visitors each year. Tourists are attracted by its wide sandy beaches and warm climate with average summer temperature around 30oC. The beaches are gently sloping and the water is warm and clear, making the sea safe for adults and children. Behind the sandy beaches are many high-rise hotels with plenty of nightclubs, bars, restaurants and casinos. There are places in France which are as popular as Spanish Costas. One of the famous seaside areas in France is the place called Cote dAzur which is famous for its resort Nice. It is a capital of French Riviera situated on the Mediterranean coast. According to Williams and Le Nevez (2007) Nice is well-known holiday destination on the Cote dAzur. Williams and Le Nevez (2007) in addition pointed that resort attracts visitors to take a delight in its beautiful beaches and warm climate. Tourists enjoy dining at the restaurants located along the French seaside. Appetizing seafood and delicious wines can be enjoyed at many seaside restaurants in this Mediterranean city. Nice has something for everyone: a medieval old town and other grand architectural monuments; a wide selection of museums; lots of bars and restaurants of all standard and type; the fine Mediterranean climate; and of course easy access to beaches. Besides, America is very famous for its beaches too. According to Fry (2008) places like Florida or California, or even further to Mexico, the Bahamas and the Caribbean are popular tourists destinations. According to Fry (2008) Florida is well-known for its famous Florida Keys and the resort of Key Largo. The Keys are long, low islands at the south of Florida. This place has many beaches and blue waters that are popular with divers. The Keys are also famous for swim with dolphins. Urban tourism Urban tourism is another type of tourist destination. Holloway (2006) stated that towns and cities attract many tourists by growing interest in cultural activities for example visits to museums and art galleries, leisure activities like shopping, and entertainment to sports. There are many different towns in France, Spain, USA and China which are famous for its rich culture and heritage, delicious food and designer shops. Holloway (2006) says that Paris in France, Madrid and Barcelona in Spain are popular destinations where tourists arrive for city holidays. They combine all the factors for a good stay: high quality hotels and restaurants, fine museums, outstanding architecture, festivals and many beautiful eye-catching shops. According to UNWTO (2008) Spain ranked on the third place in terms of arrivals-57, 3% in 2008, with France continued to lead the ranking of the worlds major tourism destinations in terms of arrivals-79, 3% in 2008. The French capital Paris has a reputation as a very charming and romantic city with popular attractions, including the Eiffel Tower, the Louvre museum, Notre-Dame and Arc de Triomphe. According to Law (1996) there are approximately 800 festivals held annually in France. The theme varies, but amongst well-known is festival related to the cinema-Cannes. Law (1996) stated that attractiveness of the Paris is incomparable and millions of tourists come here to admire the elegant beauty of the city, enjoy its rich cuisine and certainly exclusive shopping. Law (1996) also says that Barcelona is a very amazing town too, known for its rich culture, architecture and unforgettable beauty. On city break in Barcelona tourists will enjoy museums, statues on the streets, delicious Spanish food and famous boutiques. According to Holloway (2006) cities like New York in USA and Shanghai in China are popular tourist destinations for shopping. By UNWTO (2008) the USA is ranked second in arrivals-58, 0% in 2008 and China held onto their 2007 position in terms of arrivals and ranking fourth-53, 0% in 2008. As an example, according to Zhang et al. (2005) China is the worlds factory where can be found just about anything. Chinas biggest city is Shanghai. Zhang et al. (2005) says that it has a status of cosmopolitan centre of design. Shanghai is a fantastic shopping destination. Shopping here is simple and suitable for all type of tourists. Shanghai has a range of shops from roadside and boutique shops to the busy shopping centres where different types of goods and clothes can be bought. And finally, New York undoubtedly has a lot to offer to its visitors. New York has many attractions, including the Statue of Liberty, the Empire State Building, museums and Central Park. And also its well-known for shopping. The Fifth Avenue offers a range of fashionable shops. Broadway offers entertainment in the evening and the range of nightlife. Rural tourism And the final type of tourist destination is countryside. The combination of lakes and mountains attract different markets. Leisure visitors enjoy the scenery, while more active tourist enjoys climbing in summer, and do winter sports at other times. According to AndalucÃ a website (2009) Spanish countryside will give a chance to enjoy the peaceful and calming environment of old-fashioned villages. There is a large variety of accommodations like cottages, farmhouses and mansions. It will offer to visitors a variety of activities like, walking and trekking, horse riding, cycling and mountain bicycling, bird watching and camping. AndalucÃ a for example is the best place for camping, mountain bicycling and horse riding. It offers almost a year-round sunshine and wide natural environment. French Alps on the other side are very popular to active-minded tourists like skiers and snowboarders. According to Collins (2004) the Alps has more than 200 resorts and one of the famous is Chamonix. Chamonix is an alpine town which a best place for ski lovers. Collins (2004) says that sky-scraping mountains, majestic ice falls and glaciers will make everyones journey memorable.
Development of Japans Industrialisation Why was Japan able to industrialize? Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. Japan is the second worldÃ¢â¬â¢s strongest capitalism economy country. JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s research capacity, industrial base and manufacturing technology are among the highest in Asia. JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is very well, citizens have a high quality of life, GDP per capita more than forty thousand U.S. dollars in the world. Japan is one of the richest countries in the world, the most economically developed and the highest standard of living. JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is so well because of industrialized. There were three main factors that Japan industrialized, introduction foreign technology, stable import dependence and hard working cautious labors. These three main factors caused JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s economic prosperity and became the only Asian member of Ã¢â¬Å"Group of eightÃ¢â¬ (G8). The factor Ã¢â¬Å"introduction foreign technologyÃ¢â¬ let Japanese technology more advanced than before. The factor Ã¢â¬Å"stable import dependenceÃ¢â¬ let Japan had stable industrial raw materials to industrialize, and the factor Ã¢â¬Å"hard working cautious laborsÃ¢â¬ was indispensable in Japan industry. Japan was able to industrialize because introduction foreign technology, stable import dependence, and hardworking cautious labors. Thesis Statement: Japan was able to industrialize because of the introduction of foreign technique, stable import dependence and hardworking cautious labors. The Tokugawa Shogunate, also known as the Tokugawa Bakufu and the Edo Bakufu, was a feudal Japanese military government which existed between 1600 and 1868. The heads of government were the shoguns, and each was a member of the Tokugawa clan. The Tokugawa Shogunate ruled from Edo Castle and the years of Shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is also called the Tokugawa period. In 1868 the Tokugawa shogun, lost his power, than emperor Meiji started to control Japan. During 1868~1912, the important revolution in government system; traffic; education; new technologyÃ¢â¬ ¦Japan became a strong country. Japan had regained complete control of its foreign trade and legal system, by fighting and winning the wars. Japanese industry expanded, both in light export industries like textiles, which were necessary to pay for the raw materials needed from abroad, and also in heavy industries like steel and shipbuilding. Cities grew, as more Japanese moved from farming into jobs in factories and offices. In the countryside larger landlords came to own more and more land, and the number of poor tenants increased. Always dependent on foreign trade, Japan was hard hit by the world depression that began in 1929. The farmers who had grown the silk that was exported to the United States found no market for their product once the roaring twenties and the craze for silk stockings collapsed with the stock market crash. Japans dramatic economic growth slowed, and social problems increased, especially in the countryside. At the same time that the leaders of imperial Japan pursued modernization and economic growth, they continued to address the issue of Japans unequal status in the international order. In 1894, m ore than forty years after Commodore Perry pried Japan open to the outside world, Japan finally succeeded in revising the unequal treaties so that it regained its legal parity with the Western powers. In Sino-Japanese War(1894~1895), Japan defeated China in the war for Korea, Japan over the control of Korea and also gained Taiwan and Penghu island. In Russo-Japanese War, Japan went to war with Russia over Russian eastward encroachment in Asia, and in 1910, Japan expanded its empire, annexing Korea. Japan became a huge empire. From the proto-industrial base, Japans agricultural productivity was high enough to sustain substantial craft (proto-industrial) production in both rural and urban areas of the country prior to industrialization. When the United States forcibly opened Japan in the 1850s, Japans prospects seemed dim indeed. However, Tokugawa achievements: urbanization, road networks, rice cultivation. Tokugawa Japan (1600~1868) the development of proto-industrial (craft) production by merchant houses in the major cities like Osaka and Edo (now called Tokyo) and its diffusion to rural areas after 1700, and the promotion of education and population control among both the military elite (the samurai) and the well-to-do peasantry in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Tokugawa political economy: daimyo and shogun preventing daimyo from cementing alliances with other countries .The samurai military were forced to abandon rice farming and reside in the castle town. As a result irrigation ditches were extended throughout the valleys, and riverbanks were shored up with stone embankments, facilitating transport and preventing flooding. Quick emulated western organizational forms and western techniques in energy production, like coal and the other fossil fuels to generate steam power. During 1887 to1938 infrastructure and manufacturing expand. In 1852, Shimazu Nariakira, built JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s first industrial complex. On the basis of the Japanese sprit of craftsmanship for iron and pottery which had attained pre-eminence in the pre-industrial. Strongly motivated by considerations of national security, heavy industry emerged successfully and competitively, Japanese simply borrowed the best of Western technology and moulded it to fit the needs. Iron and steel production, shipbuilding and armaments, fuelled by abundant Kyushu coal created a new foundation for AsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s first industrial revolution. Technology was transferred from Satsuma to northern Japan, Kamaishi, to make the first large-scale iron furnace. In the Meiji period, JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s history of trial and error iron-making bore fruit and contributed to the birth of the first large scale furnace, in Kitakyushu, in 1901. The first modern coal mine in Japan was on Takashima Island. Iwasaki completed to develop it as JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s first modern coal mine. PeopleÃ¢â¬â ¢s efforts, dreams, ingenuity, and sweat in a drive to build a nation strong enough to survive under any circumstances. These industrial heritage sites are of the highest cultural significance. The first modern coal mine in Japan was on Takashima Island. Iwasaki completed to develop it as JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s first modern coal mine. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts, dreams, ingenuity, and sweat in a drive to build a nation strong enough to survive under any circumstances. These industrial heritage sites are of the highest cultural significance. 1853, when the United States sent Commodore Matthew C. Perry to Japan with a letter to the emperor, and orders to obtain a treaty. The first involved the lucrative China trade. The second was the need for a refueling station for the coal-powered, Japan happened to have plenty of coal. It appeared as if Japan might be headed for the same fate as China, to eventually lose central control to competing spheres of foreign influence. The Tokugawa clan was now blamed for the shame which the unequal treaties had inflicted upon Japan, in the end, the Tokugawa Shogunate was overthrown. At the same time a new emperor ascended the throne. From 1867 to 1912, remains unparalleled in history. 1876, the old class system of Japan was abandoned. With astounding speed, universities were founded, telegraph and railroad lines cross-crossed the country and a national postal system set up. The shipping and textile industries took off. How was such progress at such a rate possible? They borrowed the best of the West and molded it to fit Japans needs. A simple baseball story illustrates how enthusiastically and effectively the Japanese borrowed and adapted from other countries during the Meiji Era. 1871, Iwakura Tomomi, they spent several months each in the United States, England and Europe, and studied everything they encountered from banking systems to zoos. Some students stayed behind in different countries with host families for years of foreign education before returning home. The new innovations seemed, they also came at a price. Harsh working conditions and exploitation of workers, this threatened traditional culture. We would do better to treat China and Korea in the same way as the Western nations. In this idea lay the roots of Japanese imperialism. The First World War was -in excellent chance for manufacturers. Japan foreign trade increased four-fold during the war. At the same time, a larger market opened up for the underdeveloped countries of the Pacific area. In Japan, price rose hit all consumers .There were serious social strains and unrest, culminating in the rice riots of 1918. In short, the war benefited Japan both directly and indirectly and when it was over she was apparently poised to make further gains. Tokyo earthquake of 1923, consolidating the position of the zaibatsu. Rapidly growing cotton textile and light manufacturing industries. After 1931, the war-related industries, which used advanced technology, began to grow rapidly. Conditions of labors: A system of seniority which virtually guaranteed lifelong employment to the loyal male worker. Economic crisis: From 1937, industrial effort was concentrated on iron and steel, aircraft, tanks and automatic weapons. Once the conflict had been begun by the attack Pearl Harbor in December 1941, aggravated the hardships of the civilian population. The armed forces were abolished. Recovery: In 1946, a major land reform was initiated aimed at abolishing the allegedly militaristic landlord class by transferring land ownership to the peasants. Reform thus tended to have a two-fold action. It expanded the home market for industrial goods of the kind consumed by rural households, and it released labors for employment in the cities. Meanwhile, the whole capitalist world, from the early 1950s, entered into an unprecedented long-term phase of expansion and prosperity. By the early 1960s, Japans rapid resurgence had begun to attract the attention of outside observers who saw it as one of the most astonishing success stories of all time. Ã¢â¬Å"TheMeiji Restoration and Modernization.Ã¢â¬ Asia For Educators1994.Web.18.Oct.2013 Ã¢â¬Å"JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s Modern History : An Outline of the Period ~~Imperial Japan: Industrialization and Expression 1890~1930.Ã¢â¬ Asia For Educators.1994.Web.20.Oct.2013 Mosk Carl. Ã¢â¬Å"Japanese Industrialization and Economic GrowthÃ¢â¬ . EH.net Encyclopedia.2010.Web.20.Oct.2013 Ã¢â¬Å"Story of Japanese modern industryÃ¢â¬ . World Heritage promotion office.2012.Web.16.Oct.2013 Richard H.Minear. Ã¢â¬Å"The Meiji Era and the Modernization of JapanÃ¢â¬ . The Samurai Archives Japanese History Page. 1994.Web.17.Oct.2013. Ã¢â¬Å"Commodore Perry and the Opening of JapanÃ¢â¬ . U.S. Navy museum website.2012.Web.17.Oct.2013. Sarah Lyons Watts. Ã¢â¬Å"Japan: Ã¢â¬Å"A meteoric rise .Ã¢â¬ . Wake Forest University. N.D.Web.19.Oct.2013.