Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Chapter 11-Advertising, Integrated Marketing Communications, and the Changing Media Landscape 1. Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) and the New Media Integrated Marketing Communications: Approach designed to deliver one consistent message to buyers across an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s promotions. TV, Radio, magazines, Internet, Phones Mobil Marketing: Marketing Media that is available in different places such as cell phones or on forms of transportation * Magazines, newspapers and televisions compete with internet, texting, mobile phones, blogs, YouTube, Facebook, and twitter. Out-of-home advertising: Billboards, moveable promotions that are displayed in a broad range of public spaces including tray tables on airplanes, the inside of subways, trains, buses, and even in bathroom stalls. * As the media landscape changes, the money organizations spend on different types of communication will change as well 2. The Promotion (communication) mix Promotion or Communication Mix: Communication tools that may include advertising, sales, promotions, public relations and publicity, personal selling, and direct marketing. Advertising: A message that is paid for and sent to large groups of the population at one time with an identified organization or brand (product or service) being promoted * Advantages and disadvantages: Radio, magazines, newspapers are portable. Radios have many stations and are driving when listening. TV people get up or turn the station. Vehicle: the specific means, such as a particular magazine or a specific television show, within a medium to reach a selected target market. Personal Selling: An interactive, personal, paid promotional approach between a buyer and a seller. (e.g. interviewing for a job, pampered chef, Mary Kay) Public Relations (PR): The process of creating a positive image for a company, an offering, or a person via publicity. Sales promotion: Other forms of promotions (coupons, contests, rebates, mail-in-offers) not included as a component of a communication mix. Trade promotions: Sales promotions aimed at businesses in business-to-business marketing. (e.g. trade shows, sponsorships, event marketing, and special incentives given to retailers, such as extra money, in-store displays, and prizes to market particular products and services) Direct Marketing: Delivering personalized promotional materials directly to individual consumers. Materials may be delivered via mail, catalogs, Internet, e-mail, or telephone, or in person. * Benefits: ability to target a specific set of customers, measure the return on investment, and test different strategies before implementing to all targeted consumers. Disadvantage: Intrusive and many consumers ignore the attempts to reach them Telemarketing: A form of direct marketing that involves contacting people by phone. Do Not Call Registry: Established by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in 2008, the service prevents organizations from calling any phone numbers registered with the FTC Direct Mail: A form of direct marketing that is mailed to consumers. It can be personalized and ask consumers to make a certain response. Catalogs are often part of direct mail campaigns. Call to action: In direct marketing, requesting consumers to make a specific response such as a purchase or a call for more information. Direct Response Advertising: Direct marketing that includes an offer and a call to action (e.g. Ã¢â¬Å"Call now and receive a bonus package,Ã¢â¬ internet provides the preferred direct-response medium because it is less expensive.) 3. The Promotion Mix, Communication, and BuyersÃ¢â¬â¢ Perceptions. Factors that Influence Selection of Promotion Mix * Budget Available: the budget available to market a product determines what elements of the promotion mix are utilized. Affects a promotionÃ¢â¬â¢s reach and frequency. Reach: The number of people exposed to a message Frequency: How often people are exposed to a message * Stage in the product life cycle: affects the type and amount of the promotion used. Products in intro. stage needs more promotional dollars. * Type of product and type of purchase decision: technical- personal selling to understand features. Advertising used to sell convenience goods and routine purchase items since customers are familiar with the product. * Target Market Characteristics and consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ readiness to purchase: organizations must understand how ready different target markets are to make purchases * ConsumersÃ¢â¬â¢ Preferences for various media: Research is done to find out how consumers want to be reached * Regulations, competitors, and environmental factors: regulations can affect the type of promotion used (e.g. In U.S. tobacco products canÃ¢â¬â¢t be advertised on TV) Strength of economy has an impact- weak economy organizations use sales promotions such as coupons (associated risk is consumers may start to expect coupons) * Availability of Media: Plan promotions based on media availability. Crisis or Disasters can cut TV promotion slots. * Push versus Pull strategy: Many manufactures use both strategies Push Strategy: A strategy in which businesses are the target of promotions to products get Ã¢â¬Å"pushedÃ¢â¬ through their marketing channels and sold to consumers. (e.g. displays in retail outlets for new products) Pull Strategy: A strategy in which consumers are targeted with sales promotions such as coupons, contests, games, rebates, mail-in offers. (e.g. manufacturer promotes on TV and places coupons in the newspaper causing wholesalers and retailers to buy their product to meet consumer demand) Encode: Senders must translate or convert benefits and value of a product or service into a message for the message channel selected. Decode: Receivers interpret messages. Interference (noise): Any distractions or noise that senders and receivers face during the transmission of a message. (e.g. poor reception, poor print quality, problems with a server, low battery) Feedback: Means of telling sellers you saw their information and wanted to try their product.
Expect the UnexpectedMany people in the universe get distracted with something they may want. This is no exclusion for Sammy, the supporter, in Ã¢â¬Å" A & A ; P Ã¢â¬ by John Updike. Sammy works at the A & A ; P food market narrative and he sees something unexpected while he is working. The unexpected distraction causes him to make thing he did non intend to make which causes him to believe about things at the incorrect clip and do errors that did non necessitate to be made. Updike examines and shows the impact of one Ã¢â¬Ës environment based on one Ã¢â¬Ës determinations as shown by Sammy Ã¢â¬Ës actions that he has made in the narrative. Throughout the narrative, Sammy thinks about three misss that walk into the A & A ; P shop while he is working. He gets distracted because of the fact that they are have oning merely bathing suits. While they walk, Sammy visualizes each miss up and down and seems to acquire phantasies while believing about them. This causes him to do a error while working at the check-out procedure line and the witch-like lady in her 1950ss gets huffy and give Sammy problem because he rang up Ã¢â¬Å" HiHo Ã¢â¬ crackers twice, Ã¢â¬Å" I pealing it up once more and the client starts giving me snake pit. She Ã¢â¬Ës one of these cash-register-watchers, a enchantress about 50 with paint on her zygomatic bones and no superciliums, and I know it made her twenty-four hours to trip me upÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ( 16 ) . Sammy can non concentrate while believing about the three misss who cause his actions and his ideas to clash with each other in the incorrect manner. As it can be seen, Sammy Ã¢â¬Ës concentratio n alterations every bit shortly as he sees something unexpected. His desires catch his heads and he does non cognize what to make as he is non able to believe directly. Equally shortly as she finishes up with the lady, he starts to believe about the three misss once more and starts watching them as they go through the food market shop. He noticed one of the misss and dubbed her Queenie, because she seemed like she was the leader of the group as she was in front leading and noticed her the most. He names one of the other misss Plaid because she is have oning a plaid green two-piece bathing suit. He names the last miss Big Tall Goony-Goony because of the fact that she was large and tall. Sammy watches Queenie as she presented herself and noted her physical visual aspect. He describes her face, characteristics, how she walked, and how she goes through the isle and visualizes things. He still is in aghast how the misss are in merely bathing suits and was believing why they did non set on a shirt or some places. He shortly thinks about how he likes the organic structures on the misss and how thick they are. As the narrative goes on, Lengel, the director, comes and confronts the misss and tells them that following clip that come into the A & A ; P food market shop that they should have on shirts and places. The misss thought that they were nice when they came into the shop but the director did non desire to reason with them stating that it is policy. Equally shortly as that happens, they seem embarrassed and looked like they were in a haste to go forth A & A ; P. Sammy tells Lengel that he did non hold to abash them like that. Lengel explains to Sammy that the misss were the one abashing the shop for what they were have oning. After that, Sammy says he quits in order to catch the misss Ã¢â¬Ë attending as they hurry out the shop because he did non like the manner Lengel embarrassed them, Ã¢â¬Å" The misss, and who Ã¢â¬Ëd fault them, are in a haste to acquire out, so I say Ã¢â¬Å" I quit Ã¢â¬ to Lengel quick plenty for them to hear, trusting they Ã¢â¬Ëll halt and watch me, their u nsuspected heroÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ( 20 ) . Lengel ask Sammy if he is certain because Sammy knows that his parents will be really defeated to hear that he discontinue his occupation. Equally shortly as he leaves the shop, he ca n't happen the misss anyplace. It is as if the misss left no presence of them coming to the A & A ; P. When Sammy looks back at the shop, Lengel is in Sammy Ã¢â¬Ës topographic point pealing up the remainder of the points for other people, and at that point Sammy starts to believe what is traveling to go on here after and how everyone will handle him, Ã¢â¬Å" Lengel in my topographic point in the slot, look intoing the sheep through. His face was dark grey and his dorsum stiff, as if he Ã¢â¬Ëd merely had an injection of Fe, and my tummy sort of fell as I felt how hard the universe was traveling to be to me afterlifeÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ( 20 ) . Sammy Ã¢â¬Ës actions and his ideas collide which end up traveling at odds with each other which causes him to discontinu e merely to acquire some misss attending which did non go on at the terminal. Sammy like most other male childs thinks that they need to make something in order to catch some misss Ã¢â¬Ë attending. Throughout the narrative, things did non travel the manner Sammy wanted it to travel. Actions and ideas interfere with each other doing him to do errors that did non necessitate be made. Not merely did he acquire a witch-like lady client to acquire huffy at him which causes her to give him hell but he besides quit his occupation so he can be noticed by the misss he admires which ended up non go oning. This can be seen as the struggle and the flood tide throughout the whole narrative. These actions Sammy makes cause him to do an impact on the environment and the people around him.Work CitedUpdike, John. Ã¢â¬Å" A & A ; P. Ã¢â¬ Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing. Ed. X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia. 6th Compact erectile dysfunction. New York: Longman, 2010. Pg.16-20. Small, Anne C. , and Robert C. Evans. Ã¢â¬Å" A & A ; P. Ã¢â¬ Short Fiction: A Critical Companion,1997. 252-255. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 20 Jan. 2010.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Running Head: CONFLICT RESOLUTION How to Resolve Conflict in the Workplace Abstract This paper will explore the complex topic of how to identify, approach and solve generational conflict in the workplace. It is important for nurse managers to be able to identify generational conflicts occurring among staff. Key strategies within the process model are recommended to be utilized by the nurse manager when addressing generational conflicts at the workplace. There are four main generations focused on within this paper, showing the fundamental differences between all generations and reinforcing the importance of conflict resolution. How to Resolve Conflict in the Workplace What is conflict resolution? How does one in a managerial nursing position identify generational conflict among their staff? How does one appropriately apply the process model to solve disputes that occur in the workplace? Many questions may cross oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind when deciding how to confront and resolve conflicts among nursing staff. In order to being the process of rectifying intrapersonal staff conflicts, one may begin the process of answering the questions asked above. Conflict is defined by Hibberd and Smith (2006) Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ as a process which begins when a person perceives that someone has negatively affected or is about to negatively affect something he or she cares aboutÃ¢â¬ (p. 650). Hibberd and Smith (2006) defines conflict resolution Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ [as] ways in which people, groups, or institutions deal with social conflictÃ¢â¬ (p. 650). People frequently have preconceived notions in regards to confronting and dealing with conflict, thinking that nothing constructive or good will come from it, however according to Vivar (2006) Ã¢â¬Å" behavioral scientists have studied and concluded that not all conflict is destructive and that a certain degree of conflict is essential [in life]Ã¢â¬ (p. 201). As human beings no two individuals were raised with the same values, morals and upbringing, making conflict unavoidable. As nurses, we follow our practice with the most up to date evidence based information. Making it necessary to uphold our professional competencies continually. The nature of the health care system and the technology nurses use is continually changing and evolving. The result is vital and we as nurses must become adaptive to these changes. Generational conflicts may arise as a result of the constant changes. Workplace issues between nursing staff of different generation can often be unpleasant and unproductive, which may cause work conflicts, interpersonal tension, decreased productivity and employee dissatisfaction (Jaie, H 2004, p. 334). Proper nursing management is required in order to maintain proper conflict resolution skills and strategies in dealing with generational difference among nursing staff in a acute care setting. This paper will further discuss roles of nursing leadership in identifying, confronting and managing the issue of generational conflicts among nursing staff, through the use of the process model. Differences of Generations There are four main generations. The silent generation, born between 1922 and 1942; the baby boomers, born from 1943 to 1960; generation X born from 1961 to 1980 and millennial generation, born after 1981 (Jaie, H 2004, p. 34). All four generations are fundamentally different. The silent generation is typically loyal to authoritative figures and to their employment organization (Wiek, 2004 p. 10). Baby boomers are generally known to be workaholics perpetually concerned about their work performance, promotions and titles. Baby boomers tend to stay at one job until retirement, due to their sense of loyalty to their employer and chances of future advancement in the company (Wiek, 2004 p. 10). Generation X seeks challenges, they enjoy working independently, using technology, and often resists authority. Generation X prefer to be treated as equals to their managers and would be more partial to think of managers as mentors who collaboratively make decisions with their staff (Wiek, 2004 p. 10). The millennial generation does not uphold the same value of job security compared to the other generation. They do not feel loyalty to themselves or to the organization; rather they feel loyalty to themselves or to the team that will help them achieve outcomes (Weston, 2006 np). Unlike their parents, the millennial generation does not depend on one source of employment to provide the professional development they need to advance. They make themselves more marketable through furthering their education and certification (Weston, 2006 np). When the four generations work together it is almost inevitable that generational conflicts will arise. Therefore making it necessary that proper strategies and resolutions are in place to cope with the vast difference in styles amongst these four generations. Identifying Generational Conflict All four generations posses their own work values, in addition to personal values. Ã¢â¬Å"Learning to create integrated and collegial relationships with people from different generations is a critical skill for nurses who work in multigenerational teamsÃ¢â¬ (Weston, 2006 np). It may be difficult from some to work in multigenerational environments, making it important for the nurse leader to be able to identify the five stages of conflict and swiftly intervene if conflict is suspected. Firstly conflict begins with the awareness of the conflict (Hibberd & Smith, 2006). The nurse leader should be able to recognize the dynamics of their staff and identify when generational conflicts are occurring. Secondly, validating the thoughts and emotions involved in the conflict is beneficial (Hibberd & Smith, 2006). If one does not recognize these emotions, it is impossible to substantiate their staffÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and feelings. Thirdly, in order to deal and cope with the conflict, intentions must be formed in older to address the issue (Hibberd & Smith, 2006). Fourthly, these intentions result in behaviors that evoke a reaction (Hibberd & Smith, 2006). The reaction may change the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and emotions relating to the conflict. Fifthly, outcomes such as resolution are produced as a result of discussing the conflict (Hibberd & Smith, 2006). Once a nurse manager is capable of identifying and recognizing the five stages of conflict, one can apply and utilize the process model and different leadership strategies to produce conflict resolution among their staff. Process Model Subsequent to the nurse manger identifying the stages of conflict, it is then possible to utilize strategies from the process model to deal with the generational conflicts occurring the workplace. Many individuals believe conflict resolution is not a learnt skill but a innate behavior one is born with. The process model created by Thomas (1992), identifies five conflict management strategies one can utilize when confronting and dealing with generational conflict. The five conflict management strategies are competing, compromising, avoiding, collaborating, and accommodating. According to Cavanagh (1991), competitive style of conflict management is almost always observed when an individual puts his or her own needs and goals ahead of others (p. 1256). A positive attribute of competing style is that the method easily deals with issues that necessitate quick decisions, through the use for example of vote (Hibberd & Smith, 2006). Compromising entails both individuals to make a decision they both find acceptable. The compromising style is often not a long-term solution. Avoiding style, occurs when neither individuals want to pursue resolving the issue; negatives that result from confronting the conflict often outweigh the positives. Cavanagh (1991) views avoidance as a means for individuals to remove themselves from the conflict, or to cause distance between the individual they are in conflict with (p. 1256). Collaborating is similar to compromising, however it is more effective for long term solutions because both individuals work together to come up with a solution they are both satisfied with (Hibberd & Smith, 2006). Accommodating, occurs when one individual compromises their own concerns to please the other individuals concerns, this strategy is often used when one individual is in error, however if accommodation is frequently used, it can lead to disappointment (Hibberd & Smith, 2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Further more, accommodation is characterized by the belief that the maintenance of harmonious interpersonal relationships is more important than creating disagreement between co-workersÃ¢â¬ (Cavanagh, 1991 p. 1255). It is the role of the nurse leader in when dealing with conflicts to feel a sense of control over ones feelings regarding the issue, gather all appropriate facts concerning the issue, becoming aware of effective manners on how to approach the conflict, determining if interventions are needed, creating resolutions and evaluating the outcomes. Recognizing and appreciating different generational perspectives can both decrease tension and enhance personal and professional growth (Weston, 2006 np). Within the process model, there are various leadership and management tyles that determine your managerial conflict resolution styles. Leadership & Management Styles The nurse leaders play a focal role in creating a work environment that values generational differences and supports the needs of each individual nursing staff member, regardless of age. It is important that the nurse manager recognizes and acts on generational differences in values and behaviors (Sherman, 2006 np). As a nurse lead er, one is in the ideal position to organize their collegial nursing staff member in order to establish effective open communication channels between themselves and their staff. By doing so, one facilitates open communication and provides socio-emotional support. There are many different styles the nurse manager should become adaptable for due to the different scenarios they may encounter when dealing with generational conflicts. An autocratic leader exerts high levels of power over his or her team members (Hibberd & Smith, 2006). A bureaucratic leader manages their staff according to procedures and policies. This leadership style enforces the rules at all times (Hibberd & Smith, 2006). A democratic leader often involves other staff members to contribute to the decision making process. This typically increases work satisfaction and facilitates open communication (Hibberd & Smith, 2006). Laissez-faire leadership style literally translates into leave it be. This leadership style relays on their staff to resolve their own conflicts (Hibberd & Smith, 2006). It take confidence, people skill, motivational skills, responsibility and integrity for a nurse leader to effectively manage their nursing staff in situations of generational conflict. According to Arnold and Boggs conflict can be healthy and lead to growth and teamwork. In knowing this a nurse manager should be in a neutral position to examine explore the conflict before he or she intervene. Conclusion Generational conflicts many times are unavoidable. Ã¢â¬Å"Each generation of professional nurses brings different generational influenced strengths and values to the workplace. It is a professional responsibility [of the nurse manager] to become knowledgeable regarding these differences in strengths and values and to use them as a fulcrum to increase mutual respectÃ¢â¬ (Kupperschmidt, 2006, p. 6). There are different strategies in dealing with staff generational conflicts. According to Baker (1995) developing appropriate conflict resolution skills among all team members is imperativeÃ¢â¬ ¦. in a team environment (p. 296). References Arnold, E. , & Boggs, K. (2003). Interpersonal relationships: Professional communication skills for nurses. (4th ed). Missouri: Saunders. Baker, K. (1995, October). Improving staff nurse conflict resolution skills. Nursing, 13(5). Retrieved May 15, 2009 from MEDLINE database. Cavanagh, S. J. (1991, October). The conflict management style of staff nurses and nurse managers. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 16(10), p. 1254-1260. Retrieved May 15, 2009 from MEDLINE database. Hibberd, J. M. , & Smith, D. L. (2006). Nursing leadership and management in Canada (3rd ed. ). Toronto: Elsevier Canada. Jie, H. , & Herrick, C. , & Hodgin, K. (2004, November). Managing the multigenerational nursing team. The Health Care Manager, 23(4), p. 334-340. Retrieved May 15, 2009, from MEDLINE database. Kupperschmidt, B, R. (2006). Addressing multigenerational conflict: mutual respect and carefronting as strategy. Nursing, 11(2). Retrieved May 15, 2009, from CINAHL databse. Sherman, R, O. (2006). Leading a multigenerational nursing workforce: issues, challenges and strategies. Nursing, 11(2). Retrieved May 15, 2009 from CINAHL database. Vivar, C. G. (2006, April). Putting conflict management into practice: a nursing case study. Journal of Nursing Management, 14(3), p. 201-206. Retrieved May 15, 2009 from CINAHL database. Weston, M, J. (2006). Integrating generational perspectives in nursing. Nursing, 11(2). Retrieved May 15, 2009 from CINAHL database. Wieck, L. K. (2005, March). Nursing that works. Generational approaches to current nursing issues: how younger and older nurses can coexist. Colorado Nurse, 105(1), p. 10-13. Retrieved May 15, 2009, from CINAHL database.
The Great Debaters, directed by Denzel Washington, is an inspirational movie about a specific debate team overcoming racism in the segregated South. It is based off of the debate team of Wiley College, a small religious black school in East Texas, during the Great Depression in the 1930s. Under the guidance of their coach Melvin Tolson, the team kept prevailing week after week against every single opponent. They started competing with other black schools but eventually worked their way to triumph over prestigious white schools as well. Their most significant win was against the all-white Ivy League team, Harvard. With the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s encouraging story, this movie not only inspired people to make a change, but also presented how even students can make the world of difference. Although their actions made a big difference in fighting for what they believe, the students expressing their opinions by how they would present themselves is what eventually won over the crowd in the final victory. The leadership theme portrays greatly all throughout the movie by using body language, noble examples of mentoring, and finally a student becomes a leader himself. In the movie, the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ body language itself truly shows a form of leadership that is unexplainable. Throughout all of the debates, one could see their passion in their eyes. For example, during the first dispute against a white team Samantha debates that it is possible for blacks to get a degree at a white college. The main part of her debate that wins over the audience is how emotional she gets about the subject. It also shows her confidence and deep passion in what she believes. Another moment that someone steps up to the plate in a leadership role is when FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s dad comes to the sheriff office to help bail Tolson out of jail. Earlier in the movie we see Farmer Senior let the pig farmers walk all over him. These cruel individuals make him pay for the pig he hit, but not only that they throw the money on the ground and make him pick it up. Farmer sits in the car in awe because he cannot believe what is happening. Therefore, at the station Farmer is beyond proud of his dad for finally standing up for what he knows is right. Farmer Senior stands up calmly to the sheriff and the confidence in his posture is what won the battle. Also, during this scenario the entire debate team comes to jail to support their professor. ShowingÃ their encouragement with poise and certainty, the team does not have to say anything because everything that needs to be said someone could see from their body language. From the start this was not just a team, but also a group of people that have come together like a family. Therefore, the movie does show how what one says could have a huge impact, but also if one should go beneath the words he or she could discover much more. Not only does the leadership portray through ones body language, but also, through mentoring and even one of the students, Lowe becomes a mentor himself. Having a mentor could strongly aid someone to succeed. Professor Melvin Tolson, their debate coach, revolutionizes the small college with his big ideas and unshakable hope for justice. Taking these young souls under his wings, Tolson taught them how to break the chains of inequality and ignorance with the words they spoke and how they spoke them on the debating stage. A strong example is how Tolson takes Lowe under his wing. From the beginning Lowe has been a troublemaker. We first meet him when he is drunk at a bar; not only is he drunk, but also starts a fight with another man for getting intimate with his wife. During the entire movie Lowe handles all of their hardships in the worst ways he could. Even though he is not the most responsible when it comes to dealing with difficulty, the professor sees something in him and makes him the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s leader when they go to Harvard. Having to stay up all night preparing for the debate, Farmer and Lowe could not agree on anything so Lowe runs out. When he comes back though, the audience can see a different side of him. He gets so emotional in the hotel room and acknowledges how much negative happenings have affected him. Being the strongest debater, he steps down and tells Farmer that he will debate instead. This is such a huge part in the movie because it shows that struggle is such an enormous part of values. Lowe finally understands that anyone with a voice and is passionate about what they believe in can express their opinion on stage; it did not have to it the best debater. He puts Farmer in the position to flourish and he does succeed because he takes the audience to a true-life story of the lynching. In the end, Lowe has become a mentor himself. The leadership themes throughout the movie show that it takes struggle inÃ order to realize ones values, look beneath someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s words to find leadership, and mentoring can be a huge part of guidance. When the team had to go through hardships it eventually made them stronger and realize what they really wanted to fight for. Also, it is not always about what someone does that makes him or her a leader, but how he or she does it. When one of the debaters took stage what usually won over the audience is how they presented themselves. Finally, the mentorship by Melvin Tolson is a main factor of the debate teamÃ¢â¬â¢s success. His leadership is eventually passed down to Henry Lowe which helps the team come to a final victory against the Ivy-League school, Harvard. This movie is such an inspiration and portrays leadership unlike many other movies.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Contrast Dantes presentation of sins and sinners in Inferno and Purgatorio - Essay Example s and sinners in Inferno and Purgatory and characteristic portrayal of sins and sinners by Dante surpasses the treatment of the theme by any literary figures the world literature. Ã¢â¬Å"Ultimately, of course, what most distinguishes DanteÃ¢â¬â¢ Inferno from other representations of Hell is that he creates sinners so complex and alive that the reader is compelled to sympathize and identify with them, rather than simply to fear their lot and resolve to avoid it.Ã¢â¬ (Lansing and Barolini, 476) Therefore, Dante AlighieriÃ¢â¬â¢s presentation of sins and sinners in Inferno and Purgatory are unlike their typical representations in literature and there is essential difference in the depiction of sins and sinners between the books Inferno and Purgatory. In a profound analysis of the two books of the Divine Comedy, it becomes lucid that DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s Purgatory, in contrast to the Inferno, is a place of camaraderie, harmony, and sharing and it is, in fact, a transitory state of existe nce where the sinners are hopeful of purging themselves of their sins and gaining entry into Paradise. Significantly, there is essential difference in the representation of sins and sinners between the books Inferno and Purgatory and it is important to realize this distinction to comprehend how the Divine Comedy surpasses other pieces of the world literature which deal with the same theme. In his introduction to Purgatory, Mark Musa makes the distinction between the portrayal of sins and sinners in Inferno and Purgatory as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"In the Inferno the damned are grouped according to the sinful acts they committed; in the Purgatory repentant sinners are grouped according to the tendencies that were the cause of their sins. Penance is not to be considered as a punishment, but rather as a corrective measure for that sinner who has repented. It was a discipline imposed in order to help one fight the old habit of ones sin or the residual tendency to sin.Ã¢â¬ (Musa, x) Therefore, Dante has been careful about
No Child Left Behind Act - Research Paper Example The assessment of the basic skills of the students as well as national achievement standard is the highlight of the act. "No Child Left Behind (NCLB) emphasizes standardized testing to measure improvements in reading, math and the sciences. It consists of four general principles: teacher quality, student testing, scientifically based research and public school choice." (Background: No Child Left Behind). Therefore, the NCLB has been an essential step in elevating the performance of American schools and student with federal oversight and strict penalties for poor performance. The act sets standards by each individual state, rather than a national achievement standard and takes steps in improving the quality of education. According to the educational practitioners, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law has had a sweeping impact on U.S. public school classrooms. "It affects what students are taught, the tests they take, the training of their teachers and the way money is spent on educatio n." (What the No Child Left Behind Law Means for Your Child). In conclusion, the No Child Left Behind Law has been a fundamental development in the educational spectrum of the US and it aims at the overall improvement of the quality of education in the nation.
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Business analysis - Case Study Example The study revealed that the new e-commerce platform of Quill sells technologies and services required for establishing a new website independently. The major eight factors are ubiquity, universal standards, global reach, richness, information, density, interactivity, personalization and social technology. Considering the ethical aspects and other customer requirements it is strongly recommended that Quill.com should develop the platform in different language to cater to a mass segment. Staples Inc. is regarded as one of the largest office items providers, which owns about 2000 stores in more than 25 world countries (Ã¢â¬Å"About usÃ¢â¬ ). It is engaged in selling machines, furniture and other supplies for offices. In 1998, the company acquired Quill Corporation for expanding business. Quill Corporation sells products including office machines and furniture, along with school items. In 2001, Staples decided to integrate its website with that of the subsidiaries, which is how Quill.com had come into existence (Ã¢â¬Å"About usÃ¢â¬ ). Quill is a subsidiary of Staples Inc, which has already entered into e-commerce business in 2001 by way of providing office items to customers. However, Quill under the governance of Staples Inc has established a new online shop on 2nd May, 2014 (Ã¢â¬Å"Quill.com opens an e-commerce technology shopÃ¢â¬ ). Being unsatisfied with the limited sells of office supplies, Quill.com serves all requirements of small sized businesses while operating e-commerce sites through the new online shop. The company has engaged its customers through digital marketing (Ã¢â¬Å"Quill.com opens an e-commerce technology shopÃ¢â¬ ). Quill.com has an established e-commerce business, where it sells office requirements like, furniture, machines and essential items, which are required in schools and colleges (Ã¢â¬Å"Quill.com opens an e-commerce technology shopÃ¢â¬ ). The company has recently introduced an online shopping experience for customers, where it
Choose an element and research its properties and uses. You must use at least 2 reliable sources for your information. I do not want a list of properties; it must still be in paragraph format - Essay Example Magnesium can never be found in its natural free state because of its highly reactive nature and forms compounds readily such as magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium carbonate and magnesium fluoride. The melting point for magnesium is 1,200Ã °F and turns into a gas at 2,025Ã °F. It is 1.74 times denser than water (Uttley 2000). Burning of magnesium initiates a bright white light and ignites at 650Ã °C (Krebs 2006). Magnesium harbors a variety of helpful functions in the industrial and chemical world. Magnesium due to its bright flame properties is used in aerial flares and was used as aerial firebombs during war. Magnesium is considered a good construction metal and is used in aircrafts, space and automobile industries. Magnesium is also used in the process of thermal reduction to produce other metals such as zinc, nickel and zirconium. Milk of Magnesia is used as an antacid; magnesium in Epsom salts is used as laxatives and for treating laxatives and Epsom salts are also used for tanning leathers (Krebs 2006). Chemistry is not merely the science of matter and studying different interactions and energy processes of matter, it also makes use of the knowledge to incorporate it in the daily life activities for human benefit. The study of different properties of Magnesium and the ability of magnesium to form an array of compounds enables it to be used for a plethora of purposes in the automobile and aircraft industries, pharmacological uses, leather factories, chemical industries and war-related purposes. Krebs, Robert E.Ã The History and Use of Our Earths Chemical Elements: A Reference Guide. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2006. Print. Uttley,
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Assess the Impact of a Political Environment on International Business - Essay Example The significance of politics is much more in international business because the political system varies from country to country. Purpose of the study: According to (Batler 1998), a business entity should always take into account political risk because it is directly related to the investment, cost, tax structure and the return from that country. Keillor et al (2005) also have similar opinion. They admitted politics as a threat to international operation. Background of the study: A case study on Bangaladesh, a developing country can be cited here. The World Bank has forecasted the GDP growth of Bangladesh at 5.7 percent for the fiscal year 2014.This is way below the growth forecast 7.2 percent, done by the Bangladesh government itself. According to World Bank, the reasons behind the slower growth are political unrest, remittance crisis and problem in garments sector. Remittance is a political issue and garments is outsourced business, so again a political issue) 1. General political uncertainty: Though the normal political instability is not considered as a serious problem but if the uncertainty increases it harms the business growth. Giving the example of Africa Frynas (1998) mentioned that, political instability of Africa is the main barrier for economic development. 2. Ownership risk: If the government takes over a private business or goes for expropriation then the private owners might lose its ownership. These situations are termed as nationalization or protectionism of business. 3. Operational Risk: Government policies of the country where the business is operating matters a lot. The availability of finance, cost structure, tax structure, buying of property, human resource strategy, marketing technique everything is dependent on the government policy. Korrin (1979) expressed his concern in the case of political influence in business decision making process pr planning. In much
The High Price of Materialism - Essay Example Using results from several psychological and scientific studies on materialistic persons, Kasser argues that materialistic persons experience abnormal levels of unhappiness, anxiety, low self-esteem, and relationship problems. Kasser blames mostly the media and advertising industry for influencing individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ psychology into believing that pursuit of material goals will fulfill their necessity for sanctuary, self-esteem, community partaking and personal freedom. The main assumption especially that rendered to young people and teens is that, even though every person has needs to satisfy, a successful attainment of such needs results in higher quality of life. To Kasser, materialism is an inefficient means of attaining personal needs, since the act of buying and consuming products only brings about a feeling of goodness, and which lasts for a while leaving only a feeling of discontentment. As Kasser puts it Ã¢â¬Å"materialismÃ¢â¬ ¦.more of eating junk foodÃ¢â¬ ¦ it fills you up for a while; but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really meet your bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s need for nutrients in the right balance; so you feel like eating more and end up fat and unhealthyÃ¢â¬ (Kasser, 2003, p 24). Hence, materialism turns out to be a vicious unfulfilling circle. Notably, they value wealth and popularity as their intrinsic objective, forgetting that these two are not founded on self-growth but are instead based on the self as epitomized by others. Furthermore, he asserts that the current strong projection of materialism is based on capitalism and cultural fracture, since the extensive projection of materialism by the media, advertising, and the economy and pushes a common theme of individuals expressing themselves by following other people interests instead of having ownership of individual behaviors (Kasser, 2003). In effect, materialism is not about having a sense of self-direction or being free but being controlled by needs. Impact of Materialism Kasser is right to assert that materi alism interferes with authentic self-expression and intimate relationships (2003). This is more so because most people especially teens and young working class people judge each other value and success based on what they own or possess. In particular, a person is judged on the type of sport car he or she drives, latest smartphone or up to date fashion, instead of acumen, kindness and community contributions. It is about having more or better than what others have instead of having enough that can comfortably satisfy personal needs. My observation is that individuals who are already unhappy and suffering from poor psychological health turn into materialism as a means of meeting their psychological needs. Materialism has not influenced my life entirely but some of my friends and family members have, especially in the sense that they concentrate more on acquiring expensive items not because they necessarily need them but because they want to be part of the affluent. Such individuals ha ve this strong tendency to envy what other people possess as they lack self-esteem or are not able to express themselves in relationships. They normally exhibit a strong sense of displeasure when other people possess items they personally desire. This is despite the fact that most normally goes through difficulties in trying to attain financial stability and social acceptance (Kasser, 2003).
How the rapid evolution of technology and our utilization of it can affect and change our identities - Essay Example While most of us believe that loss of anonymity is not good for us, some consider a loss of anonymity as a benefit to the society. The paper tries to answer this question, Ã¢â¬Å"Are there any possible benefits of anonymity?Ã¢â¬ Giving so much of our information on the Internet does not affect us badly as some people might think. There seem to be more benefits of being open that promoting the anonymity. It evidence from what happened to Egypt immediately before Hosni Mubarak was removed from power. Social networks such as Facebook and twitter are the most visited sites. The users give out their information on the essence that they will improve interaction with others. However, critics argue that giving out too much of our personal information is not good. Their argument is not true, Singers acknowledges that Ã¢â¬Å"with some social standards, the more people do something, the less risky it becomes for each individualÃ¢â¬ (463). In addition, social networks are beneficial to the society especially the under-privilege as in the case of Egyptians. Despite the view of many that we are losing our anonymity through social networks such as Facebook, the Egyptians and other Arabs benefited. They used online plat form to protest against their corrupt governments (Singer 464). As in the case of drivers, their anonymity makes them aggressive towards other people especially the other drivers. According to Vanderbilt, the consideration by drivers that they are anonymous or the anonymity of other drivers make them act roughly on the road. In addition, any mess on the road by the drivers that result to respond from other drivers result to anger Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦we gesture violently or honk-a noise the offending driver might misinterpretÃ¢â¬ (487). The negative response from the other driver is due to the anonymity, Ã¢â¬Å"You can see but you canÃ¢â¬â¢t be heardÃ¢â¬ (Vanderbilt 488). The existence of anonymity is beneficial to drivers because they express themselves in any way. A scenario on
Global Economy - Essay Example The new structural adjustment programme (SAP) and economic policy usually foretell environmental effect without precision due to the multifaceted interaction of different ecological, political, social, and economic forces. This will result in an adverse effect on ecological balance. The overexploitation of natural resources caused by greater demand and the destruction of ecological systems because of rapid population increase has a severe effect on the environment. Thus the notion of sustainable development emerged, which denotes a method of human growth wherein resource use aspires to satisfy human needs while protecting the sustainable performance of the environment or the ecosystem, so that the needs of both the present and future generations will be met. Globalisation is definitely changing the global environment. Some believe that globalisation has a favourable effect on sustainable development, as a phenomenon of growth and higher living standards. It cultivates economic development and supportive organisations, both needed in the long term to deal with the global environment. Others view globalisationÃ¢â¬â¢s effect as detrimental, as a phenomenon reducing the world into a swamp of environmental deterioration. It is speeding up the disastrous process of overexploitation of natural resources without regard for social justice or equality. These two strands of argument are both valid. Globalisation is characterised by multifaceted and div erse groups of overlying mechanisms. Unavoidably, there will be diverse and on occasion intersecting outcomes for the global environment. Despite the capabilities of globalisation toward economic integration it contributed to inequality leading to greater environmental effects like desertification, biodiversity, conservation of the ozone layer, and climate change. In general, pollution, depletion of the ozone layer,
Friday, July 26, 2019
History - Assignment Example The religious patriarchs like Abraham and Ishmael were available before the scripture. TheÃ Quran started with these patriarchs to build Islam. Muslims give great regard to the authority of Quran and its sacred and divine nature. TheÃ HadithÃ is yet another important text in Islam. Hadith means traditions. Hadith constitutes the traditions followed by Muhammad in his life with the first Muslims. Numerous stories are told about the life of Muhammad. His daily affairs, his way of interacting with people, his manner of leading the community and his ways of taking care of household are considered as good examples by Muslims. Hadith illustrates the image of Muhammad, which is considered by Muslims as the role model. The Quran and theÃ HadithÃ together give the textual basis for what is considered as Islamic Ã¢â¬Ëdivine lawÃ¢â¬â¢. Both are honorable texts with high degree of authenticity and integrity. Mohammed, the Seal of the Prophets is deemed as the greatest of all prophe ts. Quran is considered as the exact embodiment of Message of God. The teachings that got revealed to Muhammad are considered as the final of all previous messages. Muslims believe that Quran follows Torah and Gospel. According to them, Quran is the final revelation of God to man. The Quran gives great honor to Hebrew patriarchs, kings and prophets who are associated with Jerusalem. Islam recognizes the revelations received by these prophets. Jesus Christ is recognized by Islam as a great messenger of God. 2. List the five pillars of Islam and define Jihad. What is the role of Sharia to Islamic law?Ã The five pillars of Islam make the make the foundation for true Muslim life. Believing in one true God and the prophethood of Muhammad makes the base of Muslim belief. Daily prayers, concern for poor and giving arms to the negatively privileged, self sanctification through fasting and sacred pilgrimage to the Makkah makes the subsequent four pillars. The Qur'an explains Jihad as a ty pical structure of checks and balances. According to Islam Jihad is a system that checks one group of people using another group. If a person or a group of people violates the rights of Muslims or breaks their limits, Muslims can rightfully Ã¢â¬ËcheckÃ¢â¬â¢ them and take them to the right line. Islam never permits unprovoked attack from its own side. Quran has asked Muslims to never start hostilities or do any act of aggression. Muslims are further commanded not to harm innocent ones and never violate the rights of others. Hurting animals and even trees is wrong according to the teachings of Islam. Islam recommends war only to defend their people from persecution, war and oppression. Quran recommends hostility to those who oppress Muslims. According to Quran, persecution cannot be afforded as it is worse than oppression. Sharia is the set of Islamic canonical laws that are fundamental to Islam. They are derived from four different sources, The Koran, The Sunnah, The Hadith or Ah adith and the ijma. Sharia was formed in the eighth and ninth centuries. Sharia means a path that leads to God. Muslims believe that Sharia is the law of God. Sharia however has different faces depending upon what exactly it entails. Fundamentalists, modernists and traditionalists, each have different views on Sharia. Sharia is therefore related to different Islamic schools of thought. Sharia deals with different fields
The Book by Eric Weiner The Geography of Happiness - Essay Example It is interesting to see how Weiner tries to find explanations for these high happiness ratings. During the chapter discussing Switzerland, Weiner begins to discuss the reasons for Swiss happiness. He surmises that one of the major reasons behind the happiness of this neutral nation is that they experience their emotions in moderation, neither being very happy or very sad. This may seem like a strange suggestion to make when discussing happiness, as perhaps it may seem necessary to experience happiness at the extreme to feature highly on the Gross National Happiness scale. In this case, we can say that there may be a link between geographical location and happiness, as the neutrality of the country seems to have had an impact on the neutrality of the people, and this leads to happiness. Another thing that Weiner mentions in his discussions of Switzerland is that the Swiss feel a huge connection with nature, and the way that geography contributes to this source of happiness is that Switzerland has a beautiful natural environment. Many other things are mentioned in the discussion of Switzerland, such as their huge wealth (and thus surmising that the Swiss should feel less envy than those in other countries) and their tendency to vote often (thus surmising that democracy is the route to happiness) and these too can be linked geographically to the Gross National Happiness index. These latter two reasons Weiner are also associated with Iceland, a wealthy country with a well-established democratic government. Weiner also gives other reasons which may contribute to the happiness of the Icelandic people, one of which is a tendency towards the creative. Weiner even goes on to suggest that everyone in Iceland is a poet and a dreamer, and perhaps this leads to a large number of extremely happy people here.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Three most common drugs in USA - Research Paper Example The research has also concluded that, over five years people have come fonder of marijuana, mainly including the group age of 12 or older. The survey of Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) has recorded that, 70,000 of the population hits under this age group. This usage of marijuana drug is increasing because of the announced legalization of marijuana, comprising the medical terms. Usage of marijuana has been legalized by the two states of America, Washington and Colorado. On the other hand, the other 20 states have approved and consent the usage of marijuana on the medical terms only. This is the reason, why people of age 12 or older are accessing marijuana easily in Washington and Colorado. Even the Justice Department of US refused to take any challenge against the legalization of marijuana. The people in these states can openly be prosecuted by the federal law, even if they stood by the state law. President Obama said that, the usage of drugs is committed for the public health purpose only, not a criminal justice problem. The legalized law of marijuana other than the medical purpose is allowing people a free hand to go for this drug, Ã¢â¬Å""These statistics represent real people, families and communities dealing with the devastating consequences of abuse and addiction." (Leinwand) Cocaine is another type of drug which is being roughly used is America. The survey conducted by The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), has recorded that in the year 2008 there has been 1.9million users of cocaine. Out of this number approximately 359,000 has been recorded as the current crack users. The most age group of Americans using cocaine is the adults from age 18 to 25 years old. Men are highly involved in the usage of cocaine as compared to women. Powder cocaine has been in the use of the students of 8th, 10th and 12th grade from late 1990s. But the previous record
Discuss the photograph below with specifics to the given - Assignment Example Iconic images such as "Girl with Flag" taken by Ethan Miller for the Las Vegas Sun become iconic because of their ability to blend a sense of reality with a sense of the artistic to fully convey the feelings of the time. In this image, a little blond-haired girl in jeans and a grey T-shirt with what appears to be an American flag printed on it, sits on the shoulders of her father, causing her to rise clearly above the crowd around them, as she solemnly looks up at the unfurled American flag she holds in one hand and has her other hand uplifted and outstretched. The photo was taken on the night after the 9/11 attacks in 2001 when the Las Vegas community held a massive candlelight vigil for those who died that day (Shine, 2011). The darkened sky above the little girl appears to be filled with sparks of light while the area below her is filled with the faces of sad-eyed adults of multiple different races, all grieving together. Through the artistic use of the camera as well as the experience of the human eye, Miller was able to capture a scene that epitomized the sentiments of the country at that time. The photo spoke to the culture in a number of ways at that time. The crowd is very diverse in both age and race, illustrating the concept that this is a united country, especially in times of trouble. As a nation, we value our ability to unite as this crowd has done within a single emotional response to a terrible event. The fact that they are all of adult size with the exception of the little girl really highlights her youth and the concept that we believe in upholding our children as the future of the nation. The effect of the sparks of light occurring above the little girl in the image combined with the fact that she is looking up gives the impression that these sparks may be the lost souls making their departure, but they are actually just pinpoints of light that are out of focus. This technique is called bokeh and is achieved by opening the aperture a
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Application of Pricing Strategies in Marketing Activities - Assignment Example In the second situation, a new company is manufacturing a dishwater detergent similar with other competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s detergent.Ã Mainly, for such a company, their objective would be to make sales in a highly competitive environment. Due to the increased cost of manufacturing the detergent, the company also intends to generate enough money to recover this cost as fast as possible. With such a case scenario, marketers may decide to use full cost pricing. With this strategy, the company intends to recover all cost of production, both valuable and fixed cost. Marketers only determine cost of goods and services after calculation of all the cost, hence may not mind so much on the generated profits. Another strategy relevant for this case would be penetration pricing strategy.Ã With strategy the company reduces prices for their products with the intention to penetrate a competitive market, where companies may be selling similar products for the same markets. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the third case scenario, determining how much to sell for a new product in area where competitors are likely to sell the same product requires proper decisions by marketers. In this case, as new business in a competitive environment, the company must firstly be in a position to get valuable market share.Ã In order to have this company make sales for the new iPhones, marketers may decide to use promotional pricing. In this strategy, companies set prices lower than the normal price list temporarily in order to attract new customers.
Buried bedrock valleys filled with glacial deposits - Essay Example As long as there is sufficient water to maintain saturation, the water will descend until it is stopped by some impervious layer, such as rock or highly impervious clay. The water can then flow laterally through the voids or rock crevices above the barrier. If there are significant differences in surface elevation, the water may flow out along the impervious layer at some lower point called a spring. If a hole is made vertically down into the saturated layer, water will flow into the hole. If the saturated layer has sufficient interconnected voids, water will flow through it relatively rapidly. When the saturated layer yields water in economic quantities, it is called an aquifer and the hole made into it could be developed into a well. The lack of resistance to flow through porous material is called permeability. In general, fine grained material such as clay or silt is low in permeability; sand is of medium permeability, and gravel is most permeable. Fractured rock varies in permeab ility depending on the degree and pattern of fracture. The quantity of water which can be stored in an aquifer is equal to the total volume of voids between the solid particles. The fraction of the total volume of an aquifer made up of voids is called porosity. If the voids are interconnected, aquifers of high porosity also tend to have high permeability. Sometimes groundwater is trapped under an impervious layer. An aquifer thus located is called a confined aquifer. If the inflow area to a confined aquifer is higher than the confining layer where a well penetrates it, the water will be under pressure and will rise in the well to some level above the confining layer. Such a well is referred to as artesian. If the water rises to the top of the well a "flowing well" results. Obviously some locations offer better chances for successful wells than others. Clues which can be helpful in selecting well locations are (i) locations and depth to water of existing wells; (ii) existence of springs and/or streams; (iii) relative locations of infiltration areas and rock outcroppings which might constitute an impervious layer; and (iv) existence of known phreatophytes (plants requiring abundant water, whose roots frequently extend to the water table). In some areas of uniform geology, such as certain alluvial deposits in valleys, wells can be constructed anywhere with equal success. In the absence of any clues or data, a test boring can be carried out by one of the methods described under small diameter wells. Such a boring can be carried out relatively quickly and cheaply and can save considerable time, money and frustration in the long run. When a well is pumped, the water in it drops to some level below the static level (Figure 2). The water surface in the aquifer then forms a "cone of depression" as it slopes from the static level at some fairly large radius, R, to the well whose radius is r. If the well completely penetrates the aquifer with the static height of water being H and the height of water during pumping, h, then
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Uk and Eu have created a legal and regulatory system that encourages the adoption and growth of e-commerce - Essay Example 41). This piece of research paper addresses the regulatory activities of UK and EU in last 15 years to encourage the adoption and growth of E-Commerce and how it has provided a framework to protect the rights of consumers. An Overview of EUÃ¢â¬â¢s E-Commerce Directive In 2000, European Union has first adopted regulations to foster E-commerce throughout the regions of EU (Plotkin, Wells and Wimmer, 2003, p. 14-60) and in 2002 it also has set certain rules and regulations in order to provide consumers within the EU with more comforts in buying of goods or services from online. One of the very fundamental objective of this regulation was to ensure that customersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights are protected. These rules and regulations have clearly defined how the protection can be applied. The protection applied only to those consumers who visited a commercial website setting specific directions regarding how a business should operate its website and virtual business environment (Sparrow 2009, p. 41) . According to EU regulations, every company that operates a virtual website must adhere strictly to the rules and regulations if the business offers good or services to its customers online. When a business fails to strictly comply with these regulations, the business will be legally liable and will be prosecuted accordingly. EUÃ¢â¬â¢s regulations about E-Commerce has been considered to be a cornerstone in electronic marketplace. These regulations, often termed as E-Commerce Directive or Distance Selling Directive, were established in 2000 to foster the expansion of E-Commerce by developing a Ã¢â¬Ëcountry of originÃ¢â¬â¢ rule that promoted free movement of E-Commerce within the EU member countries. The regulations have defined the limit of how extent one member state may regulate electronic commercial activity entering its boarders from another member state (Plotkin, Wells and Wimmer, 2003, p. 14-60). Sparrow (2009, p. 41) stressed that the E-Commerce directive developed by E U was to encourage greater use of E-Commerce by removing the barriers throughout the Europe and to enhance consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ confidence by making them and businesses aware of their rights and obligations to each others when dealing through online. The regulations were more likely to promote a single market in Europe by developing movement of Ã¢â¬Ëinformation society servicesÃ¢â¬â¢ across the European economic area. EU directive as British Law Internet Magazine in 2002 reported that the E-Commerce regulations implemented by EU has also been adopted by UK and considered as its Law. When it has been considered as part of English law, the wide-ranging legislation particularly affected ISPs and how the businesses would be held if they dealt with illegal content on the websites. When UK has adopted the EU directive, the major intentions were to boost confidence in e-commerce. According to UKÃ¢â¬â¢s regulations, those businesses that failed to adhere to the regulations have been subj ect to a Ã¢â¬Ëstop nowÃ¢â¬â¢ order by which these businesses were forced to change their online-procedures or business practices. EU Directive promoted growth of E-Commerce Computer Weekly in 2003 reported that European UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s E-Commerce Directive has already increased the take-up of online services and proved highly
Environmental Politics - Essay Example Protests do not necessarily lead to environmental legislations being passed or considered as pointed out by Agnone. This is just basic assumption based on generalization of research results forgetting that communities are different and just because several protests over legislations got recognition and quick action does not mean that it is the only channel to enforce policy changes (Agnone 1599). The author should have carried out more research to compare the number of policies that have been passed without protest against those passed with protest before writing the article and present the evidence in writing. The suggestion in Kuzmiaks article that the American Environmental Movement is gaining popularity and support recently as a result of their past history is not entirely correct. The world not only America has in the recent decades been experiencing changes in environment as a result of the climate change. With the effects starting to be experienced in form of hurricanes in the US, a change of heart to support environmental groups and activists has had to take place and the fact that this group has been there for a long time hence people recognize it is what has made the increase in popularity (Kuzmiak
Monday, July 22, 2019
Dora the Explorer Essay The series centers around a Latina girl named Dora Marquez with a love of embarking on quests related to an activity in which she would like to partake or some place that she wants to go, accompanied by her talking purple backpack and anthropomorphic monkey companion named Boots (named for his beloved pair of red boots). Each episode is based around a series of ritualistic events that occur along the way during Doras travels, along with obstacles that she and Boots are forced to overcome or puzzles that they have to solve (with assistance from the viewing audience) relating to riddles, the Spanish language, or counting. Common rituals may involve Doras encounters with Swiper, a bipedal, anthropomorphic masked thieving fox whose attempts at stealing the possessions of others must be prevented through fourth wall-breaking interaction with the viewer. However, on occasions where Swiper succeeds in snatching the belongings of other people, the viewer is presented with the challenge of helping Boots and Dora locate the lost items. Another obstacle involves encounters with another one of the programs antagonists; the Grumpy Old Troll dwelling beneath a bridge that Dora and Boots must cross, who challenges them with a riddle before permitting them the past that needs to be solved with the viewers help. Known for the constant breaking of the fourth-wall depicted in every episode, the audience is usually presented to two primary landmarks that must be passed before Dora can reach her destination, normally being challenged with games or puzzles along the way. The episode always ends with Dora successfully reaching the locale, singing the We Did It! song with Boots in triumph. On numerous occasions, television specials have been aired for the series in which the usual events of regular episodes are altered, threatened, or replaced. Usually said specials will present Dora with a bigger, more whimsical adventure than usual or with a magical task that must be fulfilled, or perhaps even offer a series of different adventures for Boots and Dora to travel through. They might be presented with an unusual, difficult task (such as assisting Swiper in his attempts to be erased from Santa Clauss Naughty List) that normally is not featured in average episodes, or challenge Dora with a goal that must be achieved (such as the emancipation of a trapped mermaid). Sometimes, the specials have involvedÃ the debut of new characters, such as the birth of Doras superpowered twin baby siblings and the introduction of the enchanted anthropomorphic stars that accompany Dora on many of her quests.
Civil engineering Essay In modern usage, civil engineering is a broad field of engineering that deals with the planning, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures, or public works, as they are related to earth, water, or civilization and their processes. See also: Earth Climate Geochemistry Environmental Science Geology Matter Energy Civil Engineering Engineering Engineering and Construction Most civil engineering today deals with power plants, bridges, roads, railways, structures, water supply, irrigation, environmental, sewer, flood control, transportation, telecommunications and traffic. In essence, civil engineering may be regarded as the profession that makes the world a more agreeable place in which to live. Engineering has developed from observations of the ways natural and constructed systems react and from the development of empirical equations that provide bases for design. Civil engineering is the broadest of the engineering fields, partly because it is the oldest of all engineering fields. In fact, engineering was once divided into only two fields, military and civil. Civil engineering is still an umbrella term, comprised of many related specialities. For more information about the topic Civil engineering, read the full article at Wikipedia.org, or see the following related articles: Traffic engineering (transportation) Ã¢â¬â Traffic engineering is a branch of civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of people and goods. .. Related Stories Researchers Building Lightweight Bridge For The 21st Century (January 28, 1999) Ã¢â¬â The bridge of the 21st century wont be made of concrete and steel, but of strong, lightweight materials equipped with electronic and optical sensors that warn engineers of any potential read more Wireless Nano Sensors Could Save Bridges, Buildings (April 12, 2010) Ã¢â¬â Could inexpensiveÃ wireless sensors based on nanotechnology be used to alert engineers to problematic cracks and damage to buildings, bridges, and other structures before they become critical? A read more NSF Funds First Phase Of Earthquake Network (September 7, 2000) Ã¢â¬â The National Science Foundation (NSF) has awarded $300,000 to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to design a national online network that will transform earthquake engineering read more Wind Expert Cites Poor Building Practices In Connection With Storm Deaths And Destruction (March 4, 1998) Ã¢â¬â National wind expert Dr. Peter Sparks, a professor of civil engineering and engineering mechanics at Clemson University, cites poor practices in connection with last weeks tornado-related death read more Quicky Assembled Bamboo Bridge, Strong Enough For Trucks, Opens In China (December 18, 2007) Ã¢â¬â In China, bamboo is used for furniture, artwork, building scaffolding, panels for concrete casting and now, truck bridges. The sustainable design is the first of its kind: the 10-meter span in Hunan read more
Family issues becoming social problems Essay Family, as what sociologists address, is a social institution. Families are shaped by the family membersÃ¢â¬â¢ personality. Individual members affect their relationship that is greatly influenced by experience. Families are also affected with the other social institution in the society like law, religion and education. Thus, families are subject to changes whether these changes gave advantages and disadvantages, the family has to cope up and make adjustments. Failure to do so will affect society and social problems might arise. This twist and turns have been quite evident as the time passes by. Single parents, careerist mothers, absent fathers, and live-in partners are blamed as the root cause of many of societys problems that could lead to persistent poverty, drug abuse, academic failure or out-of-school youths, and juvenile crime. This can be traced back to the early society that calls for historical perspective(Steven Mintz, 2003). History of the American Family In 1920, majority of American families are the traditional type; the father is the breadwinner, the wife is the home-maker and the children attend the school. Unwanted pregnancies happened between 1940 and 1958. Families of the 1950s are characterized by increase in birth rate, a stable divorce rate, and the age of marriage decline. During the early and at the middle of the nineteenth century, divorce rate began to rise because of its legislative order to be legalized. Spousal and child abuse gave rise and this can be reflected with the increase in assaults and murders committed against relatives and family members. Highest divorce cases happened at the beginning of the twentieth century. Single parenting, children in orphanage, infant mortality and early widowhood are the other changes happened in the past years(Steven Mintz, 2003). Family issues becoming social problem Divorce and single parenting From the point of view of some, divorce is an indication of failure of American family. But for others, it is viewed as a sign of freedom from men that women do enjoy. After World War II, it is documented that the rate of divorce increased and these may be an indication of the changing views and role of women in the society and their need to be free from social and financial dependence upon men. However, the dramatic increase of divorce rate has greatly affect the economical and social stability experienced by most of the divorced women that caused social problem for the economic well-being of the divorced women and the children are highly compromised. On average, women earn less income than men, households that headed by the divorced women are further disadvantaged, also, the lack of adequate and consistent child support added to the economic dilemma of divorced women (Dennis L. Peck). Spousal AbuseÃ Among the cause of violence between couples are: incompatibility between them which they discovered after the marriage and such difference arises when there is great disagreement and animosity between them, the couple is under stress and frustration therefore burst it out to one another and lastly, if the wife is a masochist or very awkward or very provocative(Rudi Dallos). Child abuse and neglect A child that is not properly taken cared of, not properly fed, deprived of basic necessities, proper medical care and treatment, and too much physical abuse is a violation to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare and is considered as a criminal behavior. Juvenile Delinquency According to a study, broken homes are associated with juvenile delinquency. Levels of juvenile delinquency were much higher in teenagers living with single fathers and lowest among teenagers living with both parents and one of the suggestive reasons for this is due to inadequate parental involvement in the life of the child. The lack of guidance and the absence of close relationships between the child and parents contributed to the causes of the delinquency(Crystal L. Murry). Financial stress Financial stress can directly and indirectly affect children because it increases parental mental and emotional distress, which limits a parentÃ¢â¬â¢s capability to respond sensitively and consistently to their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. More specifically, parents that are more commonly observed among low-income populations have behaviors of parental harshness, non-responsiveness, and inconsistency and are assumed to arise in part from the high levels of parental stress that accompany poverty. Parents having low income have the tendency to fail to express their affection and fail to respond to their childÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. (H. Abigail Raikes). Gay and Lesbian Families Sigmund Freud viewed homosexuality as a disturbed psychosexual development wherein the social orientation of the child is due to its relationship with his or her parents. Psychologists, as well as other professionals form other disciplines such as endocrinology and genetics have studied and discovered other possible causes of homosexuality (Dennis L. Peck). Before, same-sex families were inconceivable. However, in 1980s, the situation began to change and have changed the views of family life for gays and lesbians. Due to socioeconomic independence of women of lesbian families, the medical advances of in-vitro fertilization and sex transplant, acceptance of gays and lesbians by adoption agencies and courts, planned gay and lesbian parenting had increased tremendously but during the late 1980s and early 1990s, there was argument about same-sex families, particularly child-rearing by gays and lesbians. Solutions to Problems Having time for the family will be helpful in strengthening the family and businesses providing flexible working schedule will be of great help. The power of media has great influence on the youth; therefore, they should make effort on portraying positive views on marriage and valuing education. The parents should be attentive to their childÃ¢â¬â¢s learning in and out of school. No-fault divorce legislation establishes conjugal property that should be divided by both parties, assigning the childÃ¢â¬â¢s custody, and awarding alimony. Open communication is important so that problems and conflicts can be addressed within the members of the family. Nowadays, it is acceptable that both parents are working to support the financial needs of the family but make sure that there is still time for relaxation and bonding of the family members especially during special occasions. There are also government agencies, insurance company, law firms and consultants that provide legal and financial support for the child, spouse and elder that are victims of domestic violence.
Case Study Stress Related Essay Michael is to 52-year-old male who was referred to me for memory problems. Michael stated that his wife has complained that he has become very forgetful lately. Michael also stated that he feels anxious due to the fact that his wife has threatened divorce, because he works too much and the thought that he may lose his job. He also explained that at times itÃ¢â¬â¢s very difficult for him to pay attention in class. He stated that his mind wonders allowing him to remember only main concepts and not the details of material. When an individual is experiencing problems which cause extreme stress and anxiety that Michael is experiencing it can cause memory loss and what psychologist calls Ã¢â¬Å"flowing consciousnessÃ¢â¬ . When an individual receives new information it goes to the sensory memory where it is coded then to the working memory for temporary storage and manipulation of the task. The working memory is a combination of attention, concentration, short-term memory and has a limited capacity (Cowan, 2005). Basic structure and function of memory can be explained through what is called the stage model theory that was initially proposed in 1968 (Mcleod, 2007) The stage model consists of three stages: sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory (Clark, 2012). Sensory memory is the first stage of memory. Memories are stored here for a very short time approximately 3 or 4 seconds (Clark, 2012). Long enough for the information to be coded and sent to the short term memory (Clark, 2012). Short term memory is active memory or what you are thinking of at this given moment. It is also called the working memory (Ashcraft, 2001). Long term memory is information that is stored in memory, but mainly outside our consciousness (MRC, 1993). However it can be recalled through our working memory (MRC, 1993). The working memory has three components (Ashcraft, 2001. The main component is called the central executive (Ashcraft, 2001). It regulates and coordinates the flow of information within the working memory (Ashcraft, 2001). It also performs storage and processing functions. The second is the Phonological Loop (Ashcraft, 2001). This component stores verbal material (Ashcraft, 2001). The third is the visiospatial sketchpadÃ that processes material based on its visual and spatial characteristics (Ashcraft, 2001). There is significant evidence that stress affects the working memory (Luethi, 2009). For example, an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to solve math problems, reading and retrieval of information from long term memory are all affected by stress (Luethi, 2009). Stress also affects an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to accurately recall emotional events (Luethi, 2009). For example, the case involving Ronald Cotton and Jennifer Thompson who was convicted of rape and spent 10 years in prison, because of the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s misidentification. Cotton was later released due to DNA evidence (Thompson, 2000). Ã¢â¬Å"Psychological research findings show that many circumstances that lead to eyewitness testimony may be flawed and manipulated, says APAs general counsel Nathalie GilfoyleÃ¢â¬ (Azar, 2011). Ã¢â¬Å"It is no longer enough to make a conviction in our legal system today, because it is unreliableÃ¢â¬ (Azar, 2011). The limbic system is the part of the brain that is responsible for memory as well as feelings of pleasure (Bailey, 2012). It consists of two large structures called the amygdala and hippocampus (Bailey, 2012). These two structures play an important role in memory. The amygdala determines what memories are to be stored and where they are to be stored within the brain (Bailey, 2012). Ã¢â¬Å"The hippocampus is responsible for sending memories out to the cerebral hemisphere for long-term storage and when necessary an individual is to retrieve themÃ¢â¬ (Bailey, 2012). Stress can be very harmful for the limbic system as seen in this case. Michael is experiencing several of the affects. For Michaels working memory to function properly it needs MichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to concentrate and be fully attentive and this is almost impossible when there is extreme stress. Michael is so stressed due to inward thoughts like his marital issues, the thought of losing his job, and memory loss which is a symptom of the stress and anxiety he is unable to give his full attention to anything else. He is only taking in bits and pieces of information, because of the stress and the thoughts that are causing the stress. Stress is the reason behind MichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s memory loss. Michael also stated that it is difficult for him to pay attention and that his mind wonders. This is due to what is called Ã¢â¬Å"flowing consciousnessÃ¢â¬ . The brain will use this technique to take a break from the concentrated attention that is being given to the stress related issues that Michael is experiencing so it can focus on storing information in his longÃ term memory. In other words his working memory gets over loaded and must shut down partially to store information from his short term memory to his long term memory. There are several strategies that would help Michael strengthen his memory for example, yoga, exercise, Keep a datebook for appointments and number one is to take care of his health and eat nutritious meals. The body cannot function properly when it is sleep deprived and is experiencing a lack of nutrients. We all experience stress in our lives at one time or another itÃ¢â¬â¢s almost inevitable Ã¢â¬â sometimes it just canÃ¢â¬â¢t be helped. But we can change the way it affects us. References Ashcraft, M. H., Kirk, E. P. (2001). The relationships among working memory, math anxiety, and performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 224-237. Azar, B. (2011). Amercian Psychological Association. The limits of eyewitness testimony. Retrieved June 03, 2012 from www.apa.org Ã¢â¬ º Ã¢â¬ º December 2011 Monitor on Psychology Cowan, N. (2005). A Workout for Working Memory.Retrieved June 03, 2012 from www.apa.org Ã¢â¬ º Ã¢â¬ º September 2005 Monitor on Psychology Clark, D. (2012). Atkinson Shiffrin three-stage model of memory (sensory, STM, LTM). Retrieved June 06, 2012 from donaldclarkplanb.blogspot.com//atkinson-shiffrin-three- stage- mod Luethi, M., Meier, B., Sandi, C. (2009). Stress Effects on Working Memory, Explicit Memory, and Implicit Memory for Neutral and Emotional Stimuli in Healthy Men. Retrieved June 03, 2012 from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Ã¢â¬ º Ã¢â¬ º Front Behav Neurosci Ã¢â¬ º v.2; 2008 Mcleod. S. (2007). Multistore Model of Memory- Akinson and Shiffren, 1968. Retrieved June 02, 2012 from www.simplypsychology.org/multi-store.html MRC (1993). Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit.Baddeley, A.D. (1993). Working memory or working attention? In A. Baddeley L. Weiskrantz (Eds.), Attention: Selection, awareness, and control: A tribute to Donald Broadbent (152-170). Retrieved June 03, 2012 from www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk Ã¢â¬ º Ã¢â¬ º Articles listed by year of publication Thompson, J. (2000). Common Dreams. I was Certain but I was Dead Wrong. Retrieved June 03, 2012 from www.commondreams.org/views/062500-103.htm Bailey, R. (2012). About.Com. Limbic System. Retrieved June 03, 2012 from biology.about.com/od/anatomy/a/aa042205a.htm
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Ethical Theories In International Business In recent years, the globalization has been continually stimulated towards nations in the world. Two main reasons that are able to explain the expansion on global business are the degeneration of trade barriers since the end of World War II in conjunction with the sharply increasing in development of the technology in various fields such as communication, information processing, internet and transportation (Y?cel, 2009). Numerous firms, even small businesses, have been increasingly entering into the international business as foreign markets are looked as possible sources of income to the firms. Thus, there are a great number of business people who working overseas and facing the different in environmental and cultural variances. The differences certainly make a lot of problems to the cross border businesses. Many problems have presumably been created due to the different environments and especially cross-cultural environment; ethical problem is one of these problems (Y?cel, 2009). In times past, ethics had not much effect on the business. However, ethical issues have been being in vogue by the arising of dishonesty in an international business. DeGeorge argues that The change in perception and attitude can be traced back to the exponential growth in industrial pollution, the rise of consumerism and the popular reaction to increasing numbers of scandals and corruption (DeGeorge, 2000, P.50). The purpose of this essay is to present the definition of ethics and ethical theories i.e. Deontology, Teleology and Golden Rule. Furthermore, there is a discussion regarding ethical problems that may be encountered when doing business internationally. Moreover, approaches and general guideline for firms to act ethically to the issues are displayed. Harvard Referencing Style is adopted for referencing in this essay. What is ethics? Ethics is the standards to determine what is right or wrong, what is better or worse, what people ought to do or ought not to do which conduct individuals or groups of how to behave. Ethics engages an examination into a reasonable justification for the set of standards that pervasively accepted by members of culture (Grossman, 2001). In addition, MacKinnon defines ethics as Ethics, or moral philosophy, asks basic questions about the good life, about what is better and worse, about whether there is any objective right and wrong, and how we know it if there is (MacKinnon, 2007, P.3). Thus, ethics in business can be defined as the framework of reasoned and appropriated justification that provides goods, profits, to the firm based on the acceptable affected on others including all stakeholders. Business ethics requires an inquiry of firms on their actions towards global (Cuizon, 2009). Ethics is also considered as glue that cements business together (DeGeorge, 2000). As the growth of concerns about an ethical issue, several ethical theories have been developed as a guidelines or rules in order to assist all human beings and also multinational corporations to behave ethically and avoid ethical issues in the business world. Deontological theory, Teleological theory and Golden Rule are some major theories to help flee from ethical issues. These theories have different approaches to justify the behavior of human or firm whether it is ethical or unethical. The first, deontological theory is the theory that makes an ethical judgment based on the intention of act with a neglect of outcome of that act whether the outcome is good or bad. In other words, deontological ethical decision-making process has concentrate on means rather than an outcome. Pojman defines deontological theory as It is not the consequences that determine the rightness or wrongness of an act but certain features in the act itself or in the rule of which the act is token or example (Pojman, 2001, P.134-135). For example, based on the real life experience, there have been many robbery cases in Thailand that the burglars carried a weapon with them whether for violating the victims or even hunting the victims down in order to done their job easier. However, some of these cases were ended up as a death of the heedless robbers themselves because the victims who were being stolen and violated actually had a gun and shot them down instead with intention to protect their lives. This example exemplifies and expresses a difference in the term of killing by based on the deontological theory, to killing somebody is totally wrong but killing with an intention of self-defense against the assault is absolutely different. In contrast of deontological theory, the teleological theory completely provides an opposite way of ethical decision-making process. While deontology has concerned on the means, the teleological theory has focused primarily on the net outcome rather than the means itself. The teleological ethical decision-making process can be defined as the theory that stresses on the examination of the result which caused by a behavior and determine the good or bad of that outcome based on the aggregated benefit consequences for others in culture. Pojman, also, characterizes the theory as The Greatest Happiness for the Greatest Number (Pojman, 1995, P.727). This, teleological theory, could provide a dissimilar option to the same example of deontology. If victims make a decision based on teleological theory, victims would not need to shoot the thieves but call the police instead. Hence, the robbers would be alive but be jailed and the victims would finally be saved by the police. The families of thi eves would not lose their family member and consequently the victims would not be guilt as no one got killed. A given sample situation displays a way of teleology ethical decision-making process which concerns the net benefit of outcome, that are consequences from the act, rather than the act itself. Last theory, the golden rule, is to act to other people in the way that you want to be acted by them. In other perception, golden rule can be defined as to bring others mind into our mind and not to treat others in the way that you do not want to be treated. Y?cel argues about the meaning of golden rule as doing unto others as you would have them do unto you (Y?cel, 2009, P.99). This theory is seemingly a general standards or norms in the deep of human being s mind towards various cultures and religions which can be used simply as a guideline to make an ethical decision in day to day life. For instance, based on the real experience, an engineer who has been working for the special company s project had an idea to largely reduce the cost of manufacturing of the firm. However, his colleague stole his idea and sold it to management level by himself without even a given credit to the originator of the idea. To think based on the golden rule, there is a simple question Would the stealer steal others idea and pretend that the idea was originated by himself if he falls in the same situation with a person whose idea was stolen? The answer is surely no because he would actually not want his idea to be stolen by others, suddenly, he would not do it. As explanation over the ethics and several ethical theories are presented and exemplified, it indicates that even an ordinary people could face the ethical problems in day to day life. In similarly but even much higher magnitude and severity, the across border businesses are encountered with the ethical issues that are particularly caused by the differences in law, politic, environment and culture between home country and host country. Cultural variances over the various groups in international business turn the business ethics to be more complicated (Y?cel, 2009). Many practices that are considered as ethical practices in some countries are declined or even illegal in other countries (Briscoe, 2009). Small and large scale of Bribery, Human rights, Child labor and Employment discrimination are examples of ethical problems in multinational enterprises (Deresky, 2008). One of ethical problems that cross border businesses have been being faced is employment discrimination. It can be defined as treating people including employee with inequality in hiring, promotion, retirement, work selection by based on various factors e.g. gender, age, race, religion and even marital status. Tomei also argues that This difference in treatment puts him or her at a disadvantage or limits his or her access to benefits and opportunities available to other members of society (Tomei, 2003, P.402). In Singapore, for example of the gender discrimination, working men are paid with higher salary than women employee just to protect the successfully in economics of male (MacKinnon, 2007). Another example based on working life experience, the big computer hard drive manufacturer in the world which has over 10 subsidiaries and subcontractors all over the globe was impacted by the recent world s economic crisis. The crisis caused the world s sales in technology sector including c omputer hard drive dropped rapidly. At that time, the company was directly forced by the loss of income to reduce its operating cost in order to sustain the firm and survive in the business. The firm s strategy to reduce the operating cost was finalized and appeared to be the salary deduction of all employees and layoff thousands of employees throughout the organization. A plant in Malaysia, which has been established to serve the repairing and rebuilding function on claimed hard drive from customers, was certainly affected as well as other plants in cross borders. While slashing in salary caused less impact to Malaysian employees, the much more painful was created to workers by discharge a number of employees; most of them were female operators who worked in the manufacturing processes and had age around 35 years old upward. The reason to dismiss these women based on their age regardless their individual working performances was stated by the American Vice President of Asia-Pacific Regional Operations as elders have less concentration and less working efficiency to work in detailed and micro job in assembly and disassembly of hard drive s components. This selective layoff based on age is considered as unethical behavior even the women, who were dismissed, were paid for compensation. These women could definitely not live their life by only based on a moderate paid of compensation. Consequently, they would have to find a new job. However, they would be faced by other discrimination in employment since companies in Malaysia tend to not hire employees 40 years of age or above. Women with an age of 40 and older have less chance to obtain a new employment (Dylyani, 2009). This loophole is caused by the differences in law. While USA has Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) as a shield of this ethical problem, Malaysia has no protector (Dylyani, 2009). The way to resolve these 2 employment discriminations, hiring and termination, would be based on the teleolog ical frameworks. VP of the hard drive firm would at least consider individual working performance of employees as a main factor to decide who would be dismissed individually and certainly not to dismiss by basing on only their age. In addition, the consequences of layoff ought to be considered because there has been a high probability that elder operators who were expelled would be difficult to acquire a new employment. Furthermore, discrimination in hiring would be resolved by adopting the same practices as ADEA as the country s law to close the gap of difference in legal, give back the equal and fairness among all age of employees and conduct firms to behave ethically regarding the problem. It has now become clear that ethics is necessary in international business and ethical issues are unavoidable for the firms who step into across borders. Managers in multinational enterprises are required to make a decision on ethical dilemmas based on the ethical decision making processes and frameworks. Nevertheless, in order to handle with ethical issues effectively by based on the firm s benefit as well as fairness among society, problem in employing the ethical theories to particular ethical issue is definitely emerged i.e. which ethical framework should be applied to certain ethical dilemma to get the best end result? There is possibly no clear answer for the managers regarding this question. Maybe the applicable guideline for managers is to asking by following questions: Does firm act legally under home and host country s laws? Does action conflict with the human rights of all affected by it? Does action conflict with host culture? And does action cause any harm or violation t o the public? To behave ethically is the challenge for the international firms but even more challenge is to apply the ethical guidelines and theories appropriately to the ethical dilemmas.
Land Resources Land As A Resource Environmental Sciences Essay Land or soil is one of the natural bases for human life and social development. Soils are defined and characterized on the basis of their morphological profiles because the assemblage of obvious physical features represented by these units are often related to the less obvious features of their chemical composition, chemical properties, and fertility. Men have tilled the soil and irrigated and drained it for at least six millennia. This is basic to civilization. Systematic scientific study of agriculture began in the first half of the nineteenth century, along with physical studies of the soil. In its natural state, the soil is normally a three-component porous medium consisting of solid soil particles, water, and air. Much of the water involved in the hydrologic cycle is located in soil between the time of its arrival as rain at the soil surface and that of its return to the atmosphere. The processes of water movement in soil play a central part in the scientific study of the terrestrial sector of the hydrologic cycle and in the problems of dry-land and irrigated agriculture, of plant ecology, and of soil biology. These determine the transport of materials in solution such as natural salts, fertilizers, and urban and industrial wastes through the soil. Properties such as infiltration, drainage, and retention of water in the soil layers; extraction of water by plant roots; and the evaporation of water from the soil are also important. The solid phase of the soil has mineral and organic matter, which is usually highly colloidal, seldom exceeds 5-10% by weight of soil. In an agricultural context, the main interest in soil structure is in terms of soil tilth, which is related to the ability of aggregates to maintain their integrity when the soil is irrigated, tilled, or otherwise worked so that water retention and drainage and aeration are kept at favorable levels. As soil is a complex mixture of many components there is usually little value in determining the amount of a chemical element present without any indication of the fraction of the soil in which it occurs and its form of combination. Indeed, fractions that comprise only a small proportion of the total soil mass are often very important in determining its behavior. The following is a convenient classification of soil fractions: The Organic Fraction, The Mineral Fraction, Soluble in water: Simple inorganic ions, Soluble in dilute acids: Carbonates, Insoluble in dilute acids. Primary minerals mainly occur in sand and silt fractions; secondary minerals usually occur in the clay fraction ( Organic Fraction Organic materials are added to soils as dead plant and animal remains. They are decomposed by the microflora and microfauna to form humus, an amorphous material distinct from undecomposed litter. Well-humified organic matter contains about 58 % carbon, so the amount of the soil organic fraction is usually specified by determining the organic carbon content and multiplying it by 1.73. Organic contents range from zero in some mineral subsoils, through 1 to 10 % in arable topsoils, to nearly 100% (of the dry weight) in some peat and muck soils. The amounts in surface soils depend on the balance between accumulation and decomposition, and these processes in turn are influenced by temperature and moisture content. Apart from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, the organic fraction contains nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. The proportions of these elements are often expressed as ratios compared to nitrogen taken as 10, and typical values are C:N = 80-150:10, S:N = 1.2-1.5:10, and P:N = 0.2-3.0:10. Metals such as aluminum, iron, manganese, and copper are also found in small amounts in humic complexes. The organic compounds in humus are very different. The main portion appears to consist of polymers, some of which are formed by random condensation of phenols, amino acids, and other related microbial degradation products. A large number of compounds have been isolated from humus extracts, but many of these must be artifacts. Of particular interest, apart from the polyphenols, are amino acids (implying that humus contains protein), sugars (indicating carbohydrate fractions), and amino sugars. The sulfur seems to be part of the main humus fraction, probably as sulfur-containing amino acids and organic sulphates. In some soils, much of the organic phosphorus is present as inositol polyphosphates, which appear not to be an integral part of the humus. Water-soluble Components The soluble-salt content of most soils is low so that the soil solution typically contains between 5 and 25 mmol/L of calcium and magnesium salts, mainly as nitrate. In saline soils, however, the salt content is of the order of 100 mmol/L, and although still less than 1% of the soil mass, the soluble salts dominate the behavior of the soil and include also sodium (Na+), chloride (Cl-), bicarbonate (HCO3-), and sulphate (SO4) ions. The salt content is normally determined in a saturation extract prepared by wetting the soil until it is just saturated with water and filtering off the extract under reduced pressure. The filtrate may be analyzed chemically, but a rapid indication of the degree of salinity is given by measuring its electrical conductivity. Conductivity values above 4 milliSiemens (mS) indicate that crop production may be reduced by salt damage, while above 20 mS only salt-tolerant species can survive. The approximate conductivity at 25Ã °C of a 100 mmol/L solution referred to above is 8-10 mS. The reaction of soil is one of its most important diagnostic parameters. It is given by a pH measurement on the saturation extract or on a suspension of soil in water or in a dilute electrolyte solution. Strongly acid soils may have pH values down to 3.5, and strongly alkaline soils as high as 9.5, but more typical pH values of soils range from 5 to 8. Carbonates In soils formed from limestone rocks or other carbonate-containing sediments, carbonates occur mainly as calcite (CaCO3) but sometimes also as dolomite [(Ca, Mg)CO3]. They are important in the buffer system that controls the pH and cation balance of soil, and also for their reactions with anions, particularly phosphate. In their reactions with anions, the particle size and surface area of the soil carbonates are more important than the amount. Amounts of soil carbonate are estimated from the carbon dioxide evolved when the soil is treated with dilute acid, the results being expressed as a percentage by weight of the soil. In a leaching environment, soil carbonate is gradually removed by solution in carbonated water [CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 = Ca(HCO3)2] so that topsoils contain less carbonate than subsoils or the parent material. The leached carbonate may be concentrated by chemical precipitation at depth in the soil profile. Primary Minerals Soil analysis includes the separation and determination of sand, silt, and clay fractions by sieving and sedimentation. The mineral matter of soils is directly inherited from the parent material, although its composition is usually different depending on the age of the soil and the resistance of minerals to weathering. The minerals in the sand and silt fractions are mainly quartz and feldspars, plus a host of accessory minerals. Only the most resistant primary minerals remain in advanced stages of soil development, i.e., quartz (SiO2) as the major component, with smaller amounts of heavy metal oxides such as hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), and rutile (TiO2). Secondary Minerals The clay-sized ( Land Degradation Land degradation making the land unsuitable for habitat construction and agriculture has become a major problem in recent times. This has threatened the world food production as soil quality degradation results in severe reduction in crop yield. It is estimated that 15 percent of the worlds total land area has not maintained its quality due to a number of problems that include erosion, nutrient decline, salinization and physical compaction. The countries which are mainly dependent on agriculture as a national resource suffer more from the effects of land degradation. Some of the major soil degradation processes and the causes for them are given below. Loss of topsoil by erosion/surface wash. This results in a decrease in depth of the topsoil layer due to more or less uniform removal of soil material by run-off water. The possible causes are inappropriate land management especially in agriculture (insufficient soil cover, unobstructed flow of run-off water, deteriorating soil structure) leading to excessive surface run-off and sediment transport. Terrain deformation is an irregular displacement of soil material (by linear erosion or mass movement) causing clearly visible scars in the terrain. The possible causes are inappropriate land management in agriculture forestry or construction activities, allowing excessive amounts of run-off water to concentrate and flow unobstructed. Fertility decline and reduced organic matter content resulting in a net decrease of available nutrients and organic matter in the soil. This is likely to be due to imbalance between output (through harvesting, burning, leaching, etc.) and input (through manure/fertilizers, returned crop residues, flooding) of nutrients and organic matter. Soil contamination indicates the presence of an alien substance in the soil without significant negative effects and soil pollution signifies soil degradation as a consequence of location, concentration and adverse biological or toxic effects of a substance. The source of pollution may be waste dumps, spills, factory wasted, etc. The source can also be diffuse or airborne (atmospheric deposition of acidifying compounds and/or heavy metals. Eutrophication with the presence of an excess of certain soil nutrients, impairing plant growth. The possible causes are imbalanced application of organic and chemical fertilizer resulting in excess nitrogen, phosphorus; liming. Compaction resulting in deterioration of soil structure by trampling by cattle or the weight and/or frequent use of machinery. The possible causes are repeated use of heavy machinery, having a cumulative effect. Heavy grazing and overstocking may lead to compaction as well. Factors that influence compaction are ground pressure (by axle/wheel loads of the machinery used); frequency of the passage of heavy machinery; soil texture; soil moisture; climate. Sealing and crusting which is clogging of pores with fine soil material and development of a thin impervious layer at the soil surface obstructing the infiltration of rainwater. The possible causes are poor soil cover, allowing a maximum splash effect of raindrops; destruction of soil structure and low organic matter. Waterlogging that results from effects of human induced hydromorphism (i.e. excluding paddy fields). The possible causes are rising water table (e.g. due to construction of reservoirs/irrigation) and/or increased flooding caused by higher peak-flows. Lowering of the soil surface resulting from subsidence of organic soils, settling of soil. The possible causes are oxidation of peat and settling of soils in general due to lowering of the water table; solution of gypsum in the sub-soil (human-induced) or lowering of soil surface due to extraction of gas or water Loss of productive function which results from soil (land) being taken out of production for non-bio-productive activities, but not the eventual secondary degrading effects of these activities. The possible causes are urbanization and industrial activities; infrastructure; mining; quarrying, etc. Aridification, which is the decrease of average soil moisture content. The possible causes are lowering of groundwater tables for agricultural purposes or drinking water extraction; decreased soil cover and reduced organic matter content. Salinisation / alkalinization which is a net increase of the salt content of the (top)soil leading to a productivity decline. The possible causes are a distinction can be made between salinity problems due to intrusion of seawater (which may occur under all climate conditions) and inland salinisation, caused by improper irrigation methods and/or evaporation of saline groundwater. Dystrification, which is the lowering of soil pH through the process of mobilizing or increasing acidic compounds in the soil. Worldwide, almost 2,000Ã million hectares of land show at least minor signs of degradation, corresponding to approximately 1% of the ice-free surface. Around 300Ã million hectares of land surface are already seriously degraded. Soil degradation situation in India is shown in Fig. 2.10. Population growth and soil Population growth exerts enormous pressure on soils, and the soil degradation is due to additional migration and urbanization processes. The higher the rate of global population growth, the higher is the demand on the soil functions. There is already a growing disparity between growth-related demand and the availability of land. Many states are no longer capable of feeding their own populations with domestic agricultural products because they do not have enough land. Given the speed of population growth and the level of soil degradation already apparent, an increasing scarcity of soils available for meeting competing demands is expected. Two case studies of soil degradation 1. The Sahel Region The problems of soil degradation and desertification in the Sahel can be attributed to changes in nature as well as to socioeconomic causes. The nomadic groups in the Sahel are increasingly restricted in the mobility and flexibility that once provided them with a secure basis for ecological adaptation. Growing competition from other forms of land use, political measures and unclear or disadvantageous land-use rights led to their sedentarisation; they were pushed into more marginalized locations much less suitable for grazing livestock. The sensitive soils and ecosystems in the region are degraded as a result, mainly due to overgrazing. Subsistence farmers are similarly affected by displacement to marginal land that is unsuitable for farming. Greater mechanization without parallel soil protection measures (erosion protection, and suitable irrigation) has negative effects on the soils. Finally, cash crops (cotton, groundnuts) on fertile soils is not pursued in a sustainable fashion. These monocultures are farmed with the help of machines and pesticides, both of which can cause great problems. The Sahel also undergone tremendous social changes caused by internal and external conditions. Of importance is the general neglect of rural concerns and the orientation to agrarian export production through large-scale capital-intensive projects in the agricultural sector. External factors can be identified both in the global economic conditions (agricultural subsidies and/or export policies of the industrial nations, international debt) and in the practice of international development organizations, which in the past were not geared to the principle of sustainability, and which through their orientation to production technology gave too little consideration to the existing development potential. If the complex problems faced by the Sahel are to be solved, greater attention must be given to the socioeconomic causes and to organizational and financial decentralization. 2. The Leipzig-Halle-Bitterfeld region The soils in the Leipzig-Halle-Bitterfeld region are contaminated, in some cases alarmingly, by depositions of airborne pollutants through deliberate depositing of inorganic and organic substances. A prime cause of this contamination was the concentration of chemical industries, mining and energy production, all of which used outdated production methods. Since the turn of the century, there have been five brown coal mining fields, and large-scale chemical plants developed in Bitterfeld (paints and dyes), Leuna (methanol, nitrogen) and Buna (synthetic rubber). For economically and environmentally sound development of the region, soil remediation and the removal of contaminated soil are a matter of urgency, which requires considerable support from the state or from outside the region. Fig. 2.10. Soil degradation in India Landslide In a landslide, masses of rock, earth, or debris move down a slope. Landslides may be small or large, slow or rapid. They are activated by: storms, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, fires, alternate freezing or thawing, and steepening of slopes by erosion or human modification. Debris and mudflows are rivers of rock, earth, and other debris saturated with water. They develop when water rapidly accumulates in the ground, during heavy rainfall or rapid snowmelt, changing the earth into a flowing river of mud or slurry. They can flow rapidly, striking with little or no warning at avalanche speeds. They can travel several miles from their source, growing in size as they pick up trees, boulders, and other materials. Landslide problems can be caused by land mismanagement, particularly in mountain, canyon, and coastal regions. In areas burned by forest and brush fires, a lower threshold of precipitation may initiate landslides. Land-use zoning, professional inspections, and proper design can minimize many landslide, mudflow, and debris flow problems. Protection from a landslide or debris flow (a) Guidelines for the period following a landslide: Stay away from the slide area. There may be danger of additional slides. Listen to local radio or television stations for the latest emergency information. Watch for flooding, which may occur after a landslide or debris flow. Floods sometimes follow landslides and debris flows because they may both be started by the same event. Check for injured and trapped persons near the slide, without entering the direct slide area. Ask for rescuers and give them correct locations. Help a neighbor who may require special assistance infants, elderly people, and people with disabilities. Elderly people and people with disabilities may require additional assistance. People who care for them or who have large families may need additional assistance in emergency situations. Inform appropriate authorities about damaged roadways, railways, electricity lines and other utilities. Reporting potential hazards will get the utilities turned off as quickly as possible, preventing further damage. Check building foundation, chimney, and surrounding land for damage. Damage to foundations, chimneys, or surrounding land may help assess the safety of the area. Replant damaged ground as soon as possible since erosion caused by loss of ground cover can lead to flash flooding and additional landslides in the near future. Seek advice from a geotechnical expert for evaluating landslide hazards or designing corrective techniques to reduce landslide risk. A professional will be able to advise you of the best ways to prevent or reduce landslide risk, without creating further hazard. (b) During a Landslide or Debris Flow What one should do if a landslide or debris flow occurs: Stay alert and awake. Many debris-flow fatalities occur when people are sleeping. Listen to radio or television for warnings of intense rainfall. Be aware that intense, short bursts of rain may be particularly dangerous, especially after longer periods of heavy rainfall and damp weather. If you are in areas susceptible to landslides and debris flows, consider leaving if it is safe to do so. Remember that driving during an intense storm can be hazardous. If you remain at home, move to a second story if possible. Staying out of the path of a landslide or debris flow saves lives. Listen for any unusual sounds that might indicate moving debris, such as trees cracking or boulders knocking together. A trickle of flowing or falling mud or debris may precede larger landslides. Moving debris can flow quickly and sometimes without warning. If one is near a stream or channel, he should be alert for any sudden increase or decrease in water flow and for a change from clear to muddy water. Such changes may indicate landslide activity upstream, so be prepared to move quickly. Dont delay! Save yourself, not your belongings. Be especially alert when driving. Embankments along roadsides are particularly susceptible to landslides. Watch the road for collapsed pavement, mud, fallen rocks, and other indications of possible debris flows. (c) What to do in case of Imminent Landslide Danger Contact your local fire, police, or public works department. Local officials are the best persons able to assess potential danger. Inform affected neighbors. Your neighbors may not be aware of potential hazards. Advising them of a potential threat may help save lives. Help neighbors who may need assistance to evacuate. Evacuate. Getting out of the path of a landslide or debris flow is your best protection. Curl into a tight ball and protect your head if escape is not possible. (d) Before a Landslide or Debris Flow Protect yourself from the effects of a landslide or debris flow: Do not build near steep slopes, close to mountain edges, near drainage ways, or natural erosion valleys. Get a ground assessment of your property. Contact local officials, geological surveys or departments of natural resources, and university departments of geology. Landslides occur where they have before, and in identifiable hazard locations. Ask for information on landslides in your area, specific information on areas vulnerable to landslides, and request a professional referral for a very detailed site analysis of your property, and corrective measures you can take, if necessary. If you are at risk from a landslide talk to your insurance agent. Debris flow may be covered by flood insurance policies. Minimize home hazards Have flexible pipe fittings installed to avoid gas or water leaks, as flexible fittings are more resistant to breakage (only the Gas Company or professionals should install gas fittings). Plant ground cover on slopes and build retaining walls. In mudflow areas, build channels or deflection walls to direct the flow around buildings. Remember: If you build walls to divert debris flow and the flow lands on a neighbors property, you may be liable for damages. Recognize Landslide Warning Signs Changes occur in your landscape such as patterns of storm-water drainage on slopes (especially the places where runoff water converges) land movement, small slides, flows, or progressively leaning trees. Doors or windows stick or jam for the first time. New cracks appear in plaster, tile, brick, or foundations. Outside walls, walks, or stairs begin pulling away from the building. Slowly developing, widening cracks appear on the ground or on paved areas such as streets or driveways. Underground utility lines break. Bulging ground appears at the base of a slope. Water breaks through the ground surface in new locations. Fences, retaining walls, utility poles, or trees tilt or move. Faint rumbling sound that increases in volume is noticeable as the landslide nears. The ground slopes downward in one direction and may begin shifting in that direction under your feet. Unusual sounds, such as trees cracking or boulders knocking together, might indicate moving debris. Collapsed pavement, mud, fallen rocks, and other indications of possible debris flow can be seen when driving (embankments along roadsides are particularly susceptible to landslides). Desertification The most critical and increasing threat to sustainable land use is desertification. It is estimated that desertification affects one-quarter of the total land area of the world, or about 70 percent of all dry lands, and threatens the livelihoods of over 1 billion people in more than 100 countries. Desertification is closely linked with rural poverty and hunger. It exacerbates conditions leading to famine, migration, internal displacement, political instability and conflict. Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. Current desertification is taking place much faster worldwide and usually arises from the demands of increasing population that settle on the land in order to grow crops and graze animals. A major impact of desertification is loss of biodiversity and productive capacity, for example, by transition from grassland to perennial shrubs. The change in vegetation induces desertification. In the Madagascar, 10% of the entire country has been lost to desertification due to zoom agriculture by indigenous people. In Africa, with current trends of soil degradation, the continent will be able to feed just 25% of its population by 2025 according to one estimate. Deserts may be separated from the surroundings by less arid areas, mountains and other landforms. In other areas, there is a gradual transition from a dry to a more humid environment, making it more difficult to determine the desert border. These transition zones have very fragile, delicately balanced ecosystems. Desert fringes are a mosaic of microclimates. Small hollows support vegetation that picks up heat from the hot winds and protects the land from the prevailing winds. After rainfall the vegetated areas are distinctly cooler than the surroundings. In these marginal areas human activity may stress the ecosystem beyond its tolerance limit, resulting in degradation of the land. By pounding the soil with their hooves, livestock compact the substrate, increase the proportion of fine material, and reduce the percolation rate of the soil, thus encouraging erosion by wind and water. Grazing and collection of firewood reduce or eliminate plants that help to bind the soil. In large desert areas, sand dunes can encroach on human habitats. Sand dunes move through wind. In a major dust storm, dunes may move tens of meters. And like snow, sand avalanches, falling down the steep slopes of the dunes that face away from the winds, move the dunes forward. Droughts by themselves cannot cause desertification. Drought is just a contributing factor. The causes are social and economic, having to do with access to resources, power and economics. Droughts are common in arid and semiarid lands, and well-managed lands can recover from drought when the rains return. Continued land abuse during droughts, however, increases land degradation. Increased population and livestock pressure on marginal lands has accelerated desertification. In some areas, nomads moving to less arid areas disrupt the local ecosystem and increase the rate of erosion of the land. Nomads are trying to escape the desert, but because of their land-use practices, they bring the desert with them. Some arid and semi-arid lands can support crops, but additional pressure from greater population or decreases in rainfall can lead to the disappearance of the few plants present. The soil becomes exposed to wind, causing soil particles to be deposited elsewhere. The top layer becomes eroded. With the removal of shade, rates of evaporation increase and salts become drawn up to the surface. This is salinisation, which inhibits plant growth. The loss of plants causes less moisture to be retained in the area, which may change the climate pattern leading to lower rainfall. The degradation of formerly productive land is a complex process. It involves multiple causes, and it proceeds at varying rates in different climates. Desertification may intensify a general climatic trend toward greater aridity, or it may initiate a change in local climate. Desertification does not occur in linear, easily mappable patterns. Deserts advance erratically, forming patches on their borders. Areas far from natural deserts can degrade quickly to barren soil, rock, or sand through poor land management. The presence of a nearby desert has no direct relationship to desertification. Unfortunately, an area undergoing desertification is brought to public attention only after the process is well under way. Often little data are available to indicate the previous state of the ecosystem or the rate of degradation. Combating desertification is complex and difficult. Over-exploitation of the land and climate variations can have identical impacts, which makes it very difficult to choose the right mitigation strategy. Measures like reforestation cannot achieve their goals if global warming continues. Forests may die when it gets drier, and more frequent extreme events could become a threat for agriculture, water supply, and infrastructure. Current desertification Overgrazing and to a lesser extent drought in the 1930s transformed parts of the Great Plains in the United States into the Dust Bowl. During that time, a considerable fraction of the population abandoned their homes to escape the unproductive lands. Improved agricultural and water management have prevented a disaster of the earlier magnitude from recurring, but desertification presently affects millions of people with primary occurrence in the less developed countries. Desertification is widespread in many areas of the Peoples Republic of China. The populations of rural areas have increased along with an increase in the livestock; the land available for grazing has decreased. Importing of European cattle, which have higher food intakes, has made things worse. Human overpopulation is leading to destruction of tropical wet and dry forests, due to widening practices of zoom cultivation. Deforestation has led to large scale erosion, loss of soil nutrients and sometimes total desertification. Overgrazing has made the Rio Puerco Basin of central New Mexico one of the most eroded river basins of the western United States and has increased the high sediment content of the river. Overgrazing is also an issue with some regions of South Africa such as the Waterberg Massif, although restoration of native habitat and game has been pursued vigorously since 1980. The Desert of Maine is a 40-acre dune of glacial silt near Freeport, Maine. Overgrazing and soil erosion exposed the cap of the dune, revealing the desert as a small patch that continued to grow, overtaking the land. Ghana and Nigeria currently experience desertification; in the latter, desertification overtakes about 1,355 square miles of land per year. The Central Asian countries, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are also affected. More than 80% of Afghanistans land is subject to soil erosion and desertification. In Kazakhstan, nearly half of the cropland has been abandoned since 1980. In Iran, sand storms were said to have bur